The reckless Wumeng Mountain contains the glory of the copper business culture 丨 Zhang Jiangang
The opening words:
Time is like a white horse. Ten years ago, he was fortunate to participate in the compilation of the “Cultural Qujing” series of books, and carefully sorted out the highlights of Qujing’s historical and cultural. I am invited by the publicity and tourism department today to participate in the “one mobile phone tour Yunnan” formulation work, and systematically introduces the historical and cultural achievements of Qujing, so that the majority of tourists will understand Qu Jing in a deep understanding.
Looking down at the Yunnan -Guizhou Plateau from high altitude, the land of the eastern Yunnan, the peaks towered, and the canyon was deep. The Wumeng Mountains and the Liangwangshan system are vertically distributed, occupying a significant position. The most conspicuous is the flat dam sprinkled between the mountains. The dams are green and rich, and the vast mountains are mostly aimed at the mountains or forests in the mountains and forests. You can also see those large and small lakes that are scattered in the shape of the ground.
As far as natural geographical characteristics are concerned, “eastern Yunnan” Qujing, this beautiful area in eastern Yunnan, gave us too many spiritual inspiration and imagination: the third largest river in China, the Pearl River, which originated from the Mapani Mountain in Matsuma; Luo Ping is beautiful Among the landforms, the flowers and sea of thousands of flowers are overflowing; the largest Lu Liangba in the province is called the hometown of fish and rice; Cuishan, lying on the west of Qujing City, Xu Xiake stopped lingering. Compared with the prosperity and wealth of the lower reaches of the Pearl River, Qu Jing, who is the source of the Pearl River, is a virgin land to be reclaimed.
The terrain of Qujing, the north high and south, with an average altitude of 2000 meters. The first peak of the eastern Yunnan is in the Wu Mengshan Niuzhai Village in the Wulian Mountain in Huize County. It is 4017 meters above sea level. This is a real mountain in Qujing. There are more than 100,000 acres of seagrass mountains under the snow peak. The clouds cover the fog, mysteriously, the mountainside is green grass, and the cattle and sheep are wild. It is a natural pasture. The air here is clean, and the empty and far away are ashamed, making people seem to be in the “Shangri -La” sacred place of the Diqing Plateau. At that time, the Red Army had twice passing Qu Jing twice, scaring the old Chiang (Chiang Kai -shek) “abandoning Jia to throw a smoke gun” and quickly transferred the troops to protect Kunming. Singing eternal.
The Xiajiang Valley at the foot of Wumeng Mountain was fell to only 695 meters above sea level. From the peak to the bottom of the valley, the gap was more than 3,000 meters, so it was even more unpredictable. Niu Niuzhai is still white, but the valley is warm as summer. It is a three -dimensional gas distribution characteristic of “one mountain divided into four seasons, ten miles of different days”.
In the mountains of Wumeng, the mountains are high, the gap is huge, and there is a lot of sense of heaven. The sewing of the earth is like a ghost ax, and the deep part of the earth can only be passed by one person, which can only be passed by one person, reaching tens of meters deep. The “big thought” in front of the cave, lying on the sky
The mountain people living in the towering Wumeng Mountains have been integrated with nature for many years, and they have made a resolute character like the mountains. Under their feet, the mountain beams are rich in treasures. Copper ore, lead zinc ore, and a large number of coal resources have brought endless wealth to the people of the people, which also attracted endless fighting.
In history, Wumeng Mountain was originally known as the Langshan Mountain, and the ancient names of the Niu Niujiang under the mountain. The indigenous residents who hunting, farming, and mining in the wolf mountains hunting, farming, and mining of the wolf rivers were “wooden, and gradually became a settlement.”
Speaking from six or seven thousand years ago, the ancient people living in the northwest river area of my country began to develop towards all sides, one of which moved to the southwest direction of the motherland. When the ancient people migrated to the southwest, there were two ancient ethnic groups in Baiyi and Baiyue in the southwest. The ancient people and Baiyu and Baiyue have been together and fused for a long time, forming a number of ethnic groups such as Yi people, and the colorful national history is also written.
The Yi people have experienced the era of flooding in history. The tree is big, and people must be separated. After defeating the flood, the ancestor Abdin admired it, and divided his son -in -law into martial arts, Chashi, Nuo, Heng, Bu, Mo, each of them into one league to migrate in one direction. The two tribes led by the boss and the second child migrated to the western and southern parts of Yunnan; the glutinous and Hengdi tribes led by the third and fourth fourth -led to the Zhaotong and Liangshan area of Liangshan in northeast Yunnan; Part of the two tribes of cloth and Mo stayed in place, and some migrated to the direction of Bijie, Hezhang, Weining, and Guangxi Longlin in Guizhou. In the process of extending the territory, they form a Yi nationality distributed in the four provinces of Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, and Guizhou, with other tribes and tribes. The Yi people of later generations called this major historical activity as the “six ancestors’ branches”.
The “Wu Meng” means “fog and reckless” on the surface. , Then it is used as a mountain name. Some scholars say that “Umeng” is the voices of the two Yi tribes of “cloth” and “silent”. In the Yi “Fingering Road Sutra”, it is described in the Wurlang ancient country in Wumeng Mountain.
The Bumo Yi tribe who stayed in the mountains and mountains in the northeast of Yunnan, as early as Xia Shang,,, left hundreds of thousands of refined sites for silver, lead and copper, which mainly focused on the Xianshan Copper Mine. The ancient sites of the Langwangshan have become the rare ancient non -ferrous metal refining sites in the country. The “dangling culture” created by this tribe shines with the dazzling light of bronze, and is one of the important sources of Chinese bronze history. According to the scientific measurement of homogen, 3200 years ago, the bronze wares in the tomb of Yinxu Women and the Sanxingdui Bronze Bronze Ware in Sichuan Sanxingdui, which comes from this place!
Naturally, places that can produce copper are often regarded as the richest man. No wonder Yelang is arrogant, rich than big man, full of confidence. Since ancient times, Huimezawa in Wumeng Mountain is famous for its copper production. It is also because of copper and wrote his own brilliant and tragic history of Yunnan Copper Beijing.
Historical records, the history of the mining and smelting of Bronze Mine, and the history of casting copper coins has been more than 3,200 years. It can be said that the history of Huize is always running through
During the Ming Dynasty entered a large -scale coin, the number of copper production accounted for most of the country. The “Jiajing Tongbao” big copper coins that are existing in the Hye Jeongjie Hall are examples. “Yunnan Administrative Documentary” records: “Jiajing Tongbao” is the commemorative coin when the 34th year of Jiajing Jiajing (AD 1555) began to cast money. , It can be called “King of Qian”. Therefore, Huizawa was renamed the reputation of “the hometown of King Qian”. The giant copper coin sculpture with a diameter of tens of meters in the center of the Hyoser County is built based on this copper coin. Such a big copper coin looks surprising, but don’t fall into the eyes of the money.
In the Qing Dynasty, Huize Tongye created the third heyday, and a large number of merchants and gold rushing people outside the province fought.
In Huizawa, the venues everywhere are the footholds of those foreigners to stop collecting copper mines here. At the same time, they also brought deep Confucianism in the Mainland and Central Plains culture into this remote small town. The benefits are rushing. For a while, the wealthy businessmen in Huize County came, and the miners gathered here. The voices were boiling and lively. Some clubs simply set up a theater. There are often drama team gongs and drums, and the words are performed in a round. The opera team comes from all over the country. And foot. Most of the 100,000 foreign provinces who have poured into Huizawa City are mine owners, copper merchants and miners. The Huanze Hall represented by the Eighth Conference Hall is the office of the provinces in various periods of the Qing Dynasty to the Copper Mine for Copper Mine. It is also an important place for together in the fellow villagers. It is also an organization of the provincial chamber of commerce. In order to ensure security and economic benefits, foreign guests have been guaranteed to establish a fellow hall in the township party, and to host the same temple fair with the same industry associations. The layers of the halls made Huize County a concentrated display area of Chinese architectural art. Its architectural groups are together, and they are well -known, echoing each other, and their own characteristics, forming a magnificent ancient building complex. It was listed as a national key cultural relics protection unit in 2006.
In the period of Gan and Jia, the maximum copper yield of Huazawa reached more than 16 million kg. Each year, the Qing government’s rated operation to more than 6 million kilograms in Beijing accounts for more than 80%of the total number of copper demand in the country, forming a spectacular scene of Yunnan Copper Wanli Beijing Transport. South
The ritual river in Huizawa, from the birth of the reign, flow through the aunt of Na, crosses Qiaojia County in Zhaotong City, merges into the Jinsha River, and then enters the Yangtze River. Flowing into the sea. Baiwu Village, Nagu Town in the river, became Nan
Nowadays, the cultural accumulation is deep, the ancient style is still there, there are many clubs, and the long bronze transport ancient roads are side by side with the ancient tea horses of Lijiang. Some scholars call it “there is Lijiang in the east, and the west has Huizawa”. In the ancient city of Huizawa, the superb bronze artisans have also inherited the ancient copper craft technology, which is enough to shock and feel the world. The stones rolled into the river accidentally on the mines were polished by water, forming the well -known iron and quartz stone. Now you can pick up the strange stones at any time at the Niu Niu River, which attracts countless stones to enjoy. Those iron gallbladder with silver light and full body was sought after by the players, winning endless sighs. Some are like cosmic stars, some are like flying saucers, some look like football, some look like cylinder altars, strange shapes, fascinating.
Qu Jing is known as “the key to entering Dian” and “throat” in history. The ancient roads remaining in the territory are generally divided into “five -foot roads”, “ancient post roads” and “ancient channels” and “ancient channels” and “ancient channels”. “Three categories. The “Five -foot Road” is the first ancient road to Yunnan to Yunnan. This “umbilical cord” made the Qin Dynasty’s central government’s ruling forces reaching the eastern part of Yunnan.
At the end of the Warring States Period, Qin destroyed Bashu and established Shu County. With Li Bing as Shu County, Li Bing is in the Yibin area at the junction of Jinchuan and Yunnan. The method of burning watering is used to make the rocks cracking and loose. It’s right. In 221 BC, after Qin Shihuang unified the six kingdoms, the minister Chang Ye continued to build this road to the Yunnan road, and it was built until today’s Qujing. The width of this road on the road is five feet (about 1.155 meters today), so it is called “five -foot road” in history. Qin Xiu’s “five -foot road” made Qu Jing an important channel for the introduction of Central Plains culture into Yunnan, and an important hub on the Southern Silk Road, which communicates in the Asia and Europe. Five -foot ancient roads, winding through the mountains of Chongshan, the transported horse team passed, leaving a string of Tintin Dangdang horse ringtones and deep horse kick printing. It is said that during the Qin and Han dynasties, the people lived next to Tao Dao, and the economic culture of this road developed rapidly. Taoism is also a channel for ethnic integration. Dao Dao is based on the Minjiang River, Yueqin Sand, and overwhelming mountains, and stretches to Burmese. The five -foot road runs through the Yunnan and Guizhou, carry history, conveys civilization, spreads information, and affects every veins and nerves of Wumeng Mountain.
In ancient times, there was an ancient “post road” or “official road” hosted and built by the government at that time to build and build facilities such as post halls, stations, and beacon. On the ancient post road, there are storage stations for the post halls where government officials pass by at that time, and the messengs that passed the letter to the post for the time of the government officials, and the alarm for the alarm and so on. There are two ancient post roads in Qujing. One is the “ancient post road” built in the Yuan Dynasty in the victory of Fuyuan County; the other is the “Ancient Post Road” built in the Ming Dynasty in Kedu Village, Yangliu Township, Xuanwei City. In the Qin and Han dynasties, Ming Hongwu was rebuilt in the fifteenth year.
Before the appearance of the official post road, Yunnan was built by the folk spontaneous construction to communicate with business, which is generally called “ancient roads” and “folk ancient channels”. The folk passage is usually named after the starting point and end point. For example, the ancient roads from Yunnan to ancient India from Sichuan were called “Shu Body Poison (now India) Road” and “Southern Silk Road”; the ancient road from Yunnan to ancient Myanmar was called “骠Guo (now Myanmar) “, the ancient road from Yunnan to Vietnam was called” Yunnan Vietnam Road “. From Pu’er, which was rich in tea from Yunnan, he crossed the Western Double Version. The ancient road is called “Yunnan -Tibet Road”, which is also called “tea horse ancient road”. The ancient road used in the west of the West Border of the West Zena Musan can naturally be called “copper transportation ancient road”.
With the development and changes of history, some important “folk ancient channels” have been included in the official management scope, and there are facilities such as post halls, stations, and beacon to become “official roads.” For example, the “Five -foot Road” later became the Han Dynasty Tongnan Yidao and the Tang Dynasty Tongnan Central (now Yunnan, Guizhou, and southwestern Sichuan) Shimenguan Road, and some “Tea Horse Ancient Road” became the official entry of Tibetan posts or entering Beijing.
The ancient road winds, ups and downs of the years. Although the sound of the horse gangs on the ancient road has passed away, the footprints of the ancestors were deeply burned in people’s hearts.
At the exit of the ancient roads, related tongs are often set up. According to the danger, a husband is in charge, and Wanfu Mo Kai, forming a unique “customs culture”.
The Guanzhang along the ancient road is the barometer of the times. When He Ping was peaceful, the caravan was endless and became the economic life of Tongjiang Dahai. Once the war was burning, each Guanzhang became the place where the garrison troops were sold. Guan Yan is the geographical sign of administrative divisions. The joint nodes are used as a natural barrier with the help of Mangwu Meng to form a relatively stable Qujing region. Come down.
In the era of no plane train, to conquer Yunnan and enter Qu Jing, you must seize the customs.
Cotu is the gate of the south of Yunnan. In addition to Kublai Khan in history, in the western Yunnan, the Shu Han Zhuge Liang, the Fu Youde of the Ming Dynasty, and the Ertai of the Qing Dynasty were all entering the Yunnan charges. The winning level on the five -foot road is a must -have for entering Yunnan from Guizhou, and it is also a place where soldiers must compete. What’s even more strange is that there is a clear imprint of the climate of the two places on the columns of the archway. The stone pillar is like a boundary monument. It is dry and yellow facing the side of Fuyuan, while moss facing Yunnan. As a result of a moist climate.
Entering Yunnan in history, staying in Qujing, and leaving a good town of people, it is really a variety of: Yang Shengzhang with a degraded talent, some cadres who exchanged lian official Sun Shiyin, and some explorers who voluntarily came from thousands of miles Xu Xiake, even countless prisoners. Nowadays, you can often hear the elderly scolding the son of “military prisoners” or “beheading.” Entering the Guan, it seemed to enter a plateau paradise.
Yang Shengzheng (Nam Shen, the word is used for the word) due to the “discussion” of the “gift” of the Ming Dynasty, and the border was distributed. When he passed the Xuanwei Cross Crossing Ancient Post Road, he wrote on the cliff. The handwriting praises the strangeness of the mountains and rivers in Yunnan. During the Qujing period, he often used wine to express his arms, wrote a lot of poems, and described Qu Jing’s local customs.
During the Kangxi reign of the Qing Dynasty, Sun Shiyin, a native of Qiantang County, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, carried a beloved Guqin in Pingyi County (now Fuyuan County), Yunnan Province. He took office and governed, generous and benevolent, provoked the people, and sought the poverty. When he stepped down, he was empty. He did not return to return home. The people spontaneously donated. In order to show his virtue, the public donated the silver to the stone monument to name the “Lisidi”, which was erected next to the Shengjingguanyi Road. Later generations were moved by Sun Shiyin’s deeds of the official clean and people, and they published a stone monument and named it “Qin Qin Bei”.
The past thousand years. In terms of geographical location, Qujing is connected to Guizhou and Guizhou, north of Sichuan Shu, Kunming in the west, Wenshan and Honghe, and the north. On this land, Zhuang Yan opened Yunnan “Bing Weixing, with his Wang Mo Mo”, Zhuge Liang “seven capture Meng Gao” here; Yu Lingcheng destroyed the rule of the Jin Dynasty in the south; Fu Youde rate 30 30 Wan Dajun south, the “Battle of Baishijiang” and so on. In addition, in the 9th in the 9th AD, the anti -Mang Uprising led by the leader of the Eastern Yunnan and the leaders of Meng Qian, which contained Wang Mang’s large number of military forces, and strongly supported the “green forest” and “red eyebrows” of the mainland to finally eliminate Wang Mang Mang Mang The regime has established immortal achievements in the Eastern Han Dynasty.
After the Sui and Tang dynasties, the division of “Wu Man” and “White Bullet” in the ancestors of the Yi people. “Wu Man” is developed by the Kunming tribe. The friction between the barbarians is constantly. However, once there are foreign enemies, they are united and united.
In 1253, the Mongolian cavalry attacked Yunnan from Sichuan three roads. Through the Yi region, the Yi departments in a split state rose against Mongolia. Driven by the war, the Yi Ministry quickly unified under the name of the Luo Luo. Disabled by the strict level system, the Yuan Dynasty divided the people under the rule into Mongolians, colors, Han people, and southern people. The southern people who succumbed to the iron hoof lived a slave -like life.
Until the Kangxi and Yongzheng periods of the Qing Dynasty, the Qing dynasty promoted “changing the soil” in the Yi region. With the development of social productivity, some Yi regions quickly transitioned from slavery to feudal systems. Interestingly, in the obstruction of the mountains, a relatively closed life state was formed in Qujing, and the foreign “runaway officials” strongly rejected. The court sent officials many times, and was assassinated in the middle of the way, which made the officialdom be frightened.
This kind of high emperor is far away, and the central government has a long history of being whipped. There were iron certificates as early as the Wei and Jin dynasties. The “Tycoon Four Years” in the Eastern Jin Dynasty “Tycoon Four years at the age of four years” in the Eastern Jin Dynasty “Tycoon Four Years” is a joke. Because of the “Tycoon” year of the East Jin Dynasty, it was used by Xuan Xuan to usurp. The “Tycoon” year is only one year old, and the following year, Xuan Xuan fails to stop using it. An Di re -reused the “Yuan Xing” in the third year to change the Yuan to “Yixi”. The Central Plains was changed to the Yuan Dynasty and the Xun family did not know. This is the south of the south, the independence of one party, and Annan Xinjiang. The so -called “Tycoon Four Years” should be “the first year of Yixi”, that is, 405 AD, which has a history of more than 1,500 years.
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