Malta Cross: Scenicism and Cross Lotus in “Twelve hours of Chang’an”

I have recently started chasing “Twelve Twelve hours of Chang’an”.

Seeing the “Cross Lotus” that Wolf Wei leader Cao Poyan said before dying, I look at the picture. Isn’t this the “Malta Cross” that we love to use the most famous Verdura?

In this drama, many people in Jingjiao may not understand what church is. If Jingjiao is actually Christianity, it is estimated that everyone understands.

The catastrophe that Tianbao is three years without knowing whether it is true, but the history of Jingjiao flows into the Central Plains, and the history of the cross lotus logo really exists.

Regarding this period of history, it really can’t be said for three days and three nights.

But today, what I want to share with you is Malta from Jingjiao.

马耳他十字架:《长安十二时辰》里的景教与十字莲花

01

Malta’s cross

If you want to talk about Malta’s cross, you have to start with Jerusalem.

马耳他十字架:《长安十二时辰》里的景教与十字莲花

Emperor Byzantine Emperor Constantine I ordered the Holy Tomb Church on the former site of the Temple of Aphrodite, Jerusalem. It is said that his mother Helena organized the excavation of the “true cross” of Christian relics here.

In the Christian tradition, the true cross as a sign of salvation to human beings has extremely important symbolic significance.

“Jesus Better” Giotto

Whether or not it is true, Christian pilgrims start

马耳他十字架:《长安十二时辰》里的景教与十字莲花

Thousands of miles come to Jerusalem pilgrimage

It’s right.

In the period of Hargim (Al-Hakim Bi-AMR AMR Allah (985-1021), he was in politics. Christians; but the pilgrims to the soul purification of Jerusalem have not been completely blocked by secondary tyranny.

However, in the 11th century, the obstacles they encountered exceeded the past.

The rise of the Cears Turkic broke the balance of the past. They continued to expand west in Anatolia. In the Battle of Manchikt, the defeat of Byzantine announced the end of Christians’ solid rule of the small Asia Minor.

“Hospital Knights” pattern

Since then, it has become more and more dangerous through the Bosptruce Strait across Asia Sid in Jerusalem. In 1065, a large number of German pilgrims were robbed by the Arab bandits near Ramla. Many people were injured and injured. Some pilgrims were armed for three days according to their insurance protection. Finally, they were rescued by local Muslim rulers.

The earliest records of the Hospital Cavaliers originated from this period.

According to Tyre, William of Tyre, a major commercial city in southern Lebanese), records: approximately 1130-1186): about 1130-1186):

The pioneer of the Hospital Cavaliers is a group of businessmen from the middle of the 11th century from the middle of the 11th century.

Shortly after they arrived in Jerusalem, they applied to the Harry of the then ruler Fatima dynasty at the time to set up a stronghold in the Holy City of Italian compatriots. “

Malta’s cross sacrifice, the picture comes from the Internet

Therefore, the sign of the Hospital Cavaliers regards the symbol of the Amafi Republic -Malta’s cross as their symbol. At that time, the symbol was also called “Amafi Cross”.

马耳他十字架:《长安十二时辰》里的景教与十字莲花

Therefore, you will hang a master of Amafi in the chest in the chest (later took over this stronghold and hospital) in the Saint Jean.

Malta Cavaliers Group flag (mostly used for charity work)

马耳他十字架:《长安十二时辰》里的景教与十字莲花

More than that, Malta’s cross also appeared in the uniforms, flags, and badges of the Hospital Cavaliers, almost becoming its embodiment.

In 1259, the Pope of Alexander IV set a cloak of a red -bottomed white cross (for standard Latin cross) as a combat uniform of the Cavaliers. It soon became another well -known logo of the Cavaliers, and eventually evolved to the national flag of the Malta Knights.

Based on it, the Cavaliers designed their own emblem (national emblem).

However, the classic octagonal cross is still respected.

Left: Malta Cavaliers National Flag (focusing on diplomatic occasions) Right: Malta Cavaliers Group emblem (national emblem)

To this day, the flags of the red -bottom Latin Cross and the red -bottomed horse’s cross are the official group flag recognized by the Cavaliers.

For Malta’s richest man, its sign has a clear meaning.

It is said that the octagonal symbolizes eight virtues:

“Loyalty, devotion, honesty, bravery, honor, no fear of death, helping the poor and patients, and respecting the church.”

I don’t know if Jiang Shiconon chose Malta’s cross as a identification sign, inspired these virtues and quality and the history of the monastery?

Jiang Shidon, the picture is from the official website of the picture

Well, even for them, Malta’s cross is likely to have no religious meanings, but the long history of Malta’s cross may be a good, brave, and proud badge.

It is often used

Symbol of the noble, innovation and hardships of artistic profession, and the pride of the perfect attack of work

Essence

02

Verdura’s Malta Cross

Malta’s cross was mostly used in the medals because of the morals of military and war. After the 19th century, it gradually began to use it in jewelry, which gave it to it.

But if it is said that this element is used in jewelry design, fashion and trend, then it must be from

Italy Duke Fulco Di Verdura.

The picture comes from Verdura’s official website

Unlike many famous jewelry dealers, Verdura has not received formal goldenmith training; but he has the advantage that any other jewelry dealer is difficult to reach: that is the understanding of art.

This has to be blamed on a noble family on Verdura in Sicily, Italy.

The strong artistic decoration and natural scenery of Sicily in the family trains Verdura into a vivid imagination, a hint of wild humor, and the love of animals have a profound impact on his later jewelry cause.

In the social environment at that time, it can be said that throughout the 20th century, the entire jewelry industry, except he had no real noble origin to be involved in jewelry design.

Duke Fulco di Verdura, the picture comes from getty images

The aristocracy is engaged in the work of handicrafts, just like we used to think that the drama was difficult and other elegant halls.

马耳他十字架:《长安十二时辰》里的景教与十字莲花

But Verdura, with his own love for design, played his reputation in the jewelry (although Verdura at the time was just empty noble titles without $ $)

Especially in 1930-34, the first design created for Coco Chanel was still popular in the market and shooting.

That is the famous Malta bracelet.

A pair of enamel bracelets opened his career as a jewelry designer.

18K gold and pearls of melt -inlaid emerald with ruby, breeding pearl and diamond “Malta” bracelet pair, VERDURA

Valuation of 20,000 -30,000 USD transaction price 62,500 USD

Sotic New York on December 8, 2016

At the beginning, VerDura only designed textiles for Chanel. Of course, he would not be textiles; just the blessing of the aristocratic identity made him get a “consultant” job in Chanel.

马耳他十字架:《长安十二时辰》里的景教与十字莲花

At this time, Chanel has been with the richest man in the UK for seven years.

After experiencing the most luxurious and beautiful life, she also made her understand

“Luxury is those things that are not seen.”

Naturally, Verdura from the nobles resonated with Chanel’s understanding of fashion and luxury. Especially when they travel to Venice and Lavana together, they have a couple of their conceptual ideas for the two.

They have a lot of enthusiasm for Baroque style (Verdura’s palace where the palace lived in his home was the decoration of Baroque style), free, unrestrained subject matter, and classic tastes. Way.

Chanel and Verdura, the picture comes from the network

When the two met in the Cathedral of St. Vitley, Italy

Ordra Mosaic Micro Mosaic Painting

(The wife of Chastini I) When the painting paintings, they did not need to see the light in the eyes of the other person.

What else is better than this painting

What do you express complex and primitive -style?

马耳他十字架:《长安十二时辰》里的景教与十字莲花

Intersection

As for why the use of Malta’s cross is designed?

This is to be blamed on the pattern of Malta’s cross, which is also an important item in Sicily’s Mediterranean culture. At the same time, this symbol also reminds Ms. Chanel reminding her childhood life in the monastery.

The Cathedral of the St. Vitari Cathedral of the Evodra Mosaic (Built in 547 AD)

So VerDura outlines the large Malta’s cross with gold, and is inlaid with rainbow -like egg -like gemstones; exaggerated volume, dazzling colors, and bright jewelry integration at a glance. Woolen cloth?

Just as Byzantine’s cross pendant, the Malta of the Cross Cross Cross Cross Cross, the meaning of religion and the military as the symbol of faith; this Malta with Chanel, his cross jewelry also received the customer’s sought after; after all, at that time, Chanel clothing had already been It is not a phenomenon but a fashion. Who can reject Ms. Chanel’s “modernist philosophy”?

马耳他十字架:《长安十二时辰》里的景教与十字莲花

This is no wonder why the famous fashion editor Diana Frigan Diana Vreeland purchased Verdura’s earliest and most famous jewelry- “Theodora” and “Ravenna” brooch.

马耳他十字架:《长安十二时辰》里的景教与十字莲花

Diana vreeland and “Theodora” and “Ravenna” brooch

The inspirational muse was inspired by Chanel, and its revolutionary gold and gem “Byzantine” design broke the status quo of the jewelry industry at that time.

What is the status quo of the jewelry industry at that time?

The economic crisis caused by Wall Street’s economic crisis in 1929 swept the world. The murderous magic and Parisians in the 1920s were gradually disappearing; but the carnival in the Jazz era still prevailed in high society; platinum+diamonds of diamonds White jewelry is also quietly replaced by Chanel color glass product jewelry.

Verdura also transformed this style into a pair of Maltese Cross bracelets of Coco Chanel.

This is why future generations commented

马耳他十字架:《长安十二时辰》里的景教与十字莲花

“This pair of Malta’s cross bracelet defines the style of this era

Gold inlaid diamond and gem with enamel “Malta Cross” bracelet, VERDURA

Valuation 7,500-10,000 USD. Transaction price 30,000 USD

Sotic New York on December 5, 2017

Although before Verdura, there were many people who appeared in his crossed jewelry; but due to Chanel’s launch, this symbol officially became the “darling” of many designers in the jewelry circle.

And Malta’s cross is also in line with the style of decorative art:

Geometry, symmetry, radiation, structural order

It is like the process of pursuing the meaning of life in the early stages of decorative arts in the early stage of decorative art: desire order, stable but confused, and produce skepticism and confusion in the world.

Gold inlaid garnet with diamond needle, verDura

Valuation 8,000-10,000 USD transaction price 13,750 USD

马耳他十字架:《长安十二时辰》里的景教与十字莲花

Sotic New York on December 09, 2015

As for why decorative arts are still popular, they can gain everyone’s love, and after a hundred years, it is still enduring.

Apply a friend’s sentence: Art Deco is having a moment!

It embraces both modernity and luxury, and its modern sense is rooted in tradition, and people always never forget the old love when enjoying modern life.

This may also be why Malta’s cross has always been popular.

03

马耳他十字架:《长安十二时辰》里的景教与十字莲花

The meaning of Malta’s cross

Except for the Maldura designed Malta Cross, antique jewelry and modern jewelry are different from the understanding of them. The design concepts are different, and they show a variety of Malta cross.

Circa 1840 Malta’s Cross Strike

Valuation, 1,800 -£ 2,200 transaction price £ 1,650

马耳他十字架:《长安十二时辰》里的景教与十字莲花

RoseBels London on December 5, 2017

For example, this Malta’s cross from Circa 1840 is different from Verdura’s design. There is a dot in the middle of the pour V, and there are also supplementary lines between the two corners.

In fact, these two points of the Malta’s cross are followed by one of the most important features of ancient Egyptian art: fill the central axis.

马耳他十字架:《长安十二时辰》里的景教与十字莲花

There is a small cone -shaped on the axis between the two corners of the Egyptian palm ornaments, which is a very popular principles of the original art in ancient Egyptian art -the performance of filling the principle of the middle axis.

Fill in the central axis:

That is, a blank place formed by two curves, fill in the pattern to make up for the vacancies. This reflects the decorative motivation of primitive art to varying degrees, and involves the complex psychology of people facing death and regeneration.

Antique Gold, AMETHYST, FOILED-BACK AMETHYYYYYYYYYOND MALTES CROSS PENDANT-BROOCH

Valuation: $ 3,000 -$ 4,000 Transaction price $ 10,000

April 13, 2011 Doyle Action

It is casual in jewelry design.

Of course, there are also designs that have no filling in the central axis, just like the design of Verdura, and there is also a semi -filled design of the central axis.

马耳他十字架:《长安十二时辰》里的景教与十字莲花

For example, the auction house of the Doyle auction house once shot the auction house and the diamond horse’s cross, which only filled the “vacancy” between the four corners.

Georgian silver jewelry gold and diamond Malta other cross pendant/brooch

Valuation $ 3,000-5,000 September 13, 2016 Hindman AuctionErs

There are also deformation in the four corners.

The forms are different, but the general rule is that the octagonal is unchanged.

马耳他十字架:《长安十二时辰》里的景教与十字莲花

Just as the Cavaliers’ Teleencies are

“Defend faith, help the poor”

It is clear that they are committed to religion and charity. In the past, defending faith was a horse riding; now, the members of the Cavaliers can defend the faith by example, and now their real influence is in the charitable field.

Essence

Therefore, improper behavior is the taboo of the Cavaliers.

Don’t doubt that the Malta Cavaliers still exist so far, it is said that there are currently only 55 -bit worldwide (data from BBC Ross Kenneth

Urken report)

The Beheading of St John

The most famous case is about about

Caravaggio, a bad boy during the Renaissance.

He killed someone during the duel in Rome. He came to Malta in 1607 and joined the Cavaliers.

Because the Cavaliers needed a court painter at the time, it was not guilty to Caravaggio. His biggest and only signature work “John John Beheading” ensured his value to the Cavaliers, which is still exhibited in the St. John Cathedral of Walita.

But one year later he was arrested, and many people thought it was a fight.

So the Cavaliers detained him in St. Anjelosburg and expelled him out of the Cavaliers.

Therefore, the cross is still popular now, which may be related to faith.

Cletene in the Malta Knights said: The Cavaliers and the qualified gentleman have a key characteristic: humble pride.

Kleti is the last Credit: Kurt Farrugia, who has read the Cavaliers “Poverty and Virginity” vows

How to understand this feature?

“I hope that when we put on a uniform or a church robe, people will say” wow “, but I also hope not to take ourselves too seriously.”

Is the gentleman dying? To a certain extent.

But Cleti believes that a person does not need to be a knight to behave like a knight.

“To be honest, I think the knight and gentleman are not much different.”

From this level, the people of Damar’s cross, in addition to the meaning of the cross itself, may always remind us: don’t forget to be a gentleman.

Source: Sotheby

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