Kazakh (Shepherd in the Central Asian Prairie)

Kazakh

The ethnic language is Kazakh, belonging to the Turkician of the Altai Department, and generally believes in Islam.

The main body of the Kazakhs in Central Asia and West Asia is mainly distributed in Kazakhstan, China, Russia, Uzbekistan, Turkey, Mongolia and other countries.

The Kazakhs is the main ethnic group of Kazakhstan, accounting for 65.5%of its total population. According to the sixth national census statistics in 2010, the total number of Kazakh people in China is 1462588

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Essence

Chinese name

Foreign language name

Kazakh, qazaq

Religious

Islam

哈萨克族(中亚大草原的牧羊人)

distribution area

Central Asia, West Asia

language

Kazakh, Russian

[4]

population

1462588

Race

Mongolian and Caucasian mixed race

Ancestor

Turkic, Wusun, etc.

Table of contents

1

Claim

2

history

3

politics

4

culture

哈萨克族(中亚大草原的牧羊人)

Belief

architecture

apparel

diet

etiquette

literature

5

Art

music

dance

6

custom

festival

Love

funeral

The origin of the “Kazakhs” clan, there are 5 people with different opinions, and there are 5 more representative views:

The first view is that the name “Kazakhstan” appeared in the 15th century. At that time, some herders in the lower reaches of the Sir River moved to the Chu River Basin south of Lake Balkham under the leadership of Krehan and Gunbek Khan. Because they walked east to the oppression of the rule of resistance and escape from Ablhur Khan, they were named “Kazakhstan”.

The second view is that “Wusun” is the sound of “Kazakhstan”.

The third view is that “Kazakhstan” is the opponent of Kosa and Sasa contained in “Tang Book”. As early as the 5th to 6th centuries, some high -car tribes on the Mongolian Plateau moved over the west of Altai and Erzis, nomadic in the grasslands north of Xianhai and Lili Sea. Tiele tribe and other Tiele tribes in the water area.曷 曷 is also translated as Sa, Geza, Kosa. During the Sui and Tang dynasties, the Tiele Ministry formed a tribal alliance with the Kosa Ministry as the core, conquered and merged some local indigenous peoples, and established power. Because its language was the same as the Turkic people who recently formed, they were called “Kosa Saisa. Turkic State. Du Huan’s “Jing Xing Ji” in the Tang Dynasty said: “((the country) to the north of Koshare.” ) In the northwest, Turkic Sasa. “In the 6th century, its country reached its heyday. Contract with the Persian State. Later, he developed into Qincha Kingdom, and was conquered in Genghis Khan and his descendants in the 13th century. According to the book “World Territory” written in Persian in 982 AD, Alan State has the national title of “Kazak”.

The fourth point of view is that Muhammad Kashika Kashi Kashi Kashi Kashi Kashi Kashi

哈萨克族(中亚大草原的牧羊人)

In the Turkic Dictionary: The sharp name of the Turkic described weapons such as swords “Kazak. During the Northern and Southern Dynasties, from the Mongolian Plateau to the East Roman Empire, there were tribes such as the Tiele and Saisa, and in the west of Central Asia in the Sui and Tang dynasties. The Sui Dynasty, followed the Emperor Sui Yang to conquer Goryeo in the east, was named “Sasana Khan”, which means “brave and healthy”. Therefore, a “Kazakhstan” has appeared as early as the late Northern and Southern Dynasties, which means bravery and sharpness. The first part of the word “Kazakhstan” is “kaz” as the root of the word, and the derived words have “freedom” and “autonomous”. The latter part of “AK” is the ancient body form of most additional words. Therefore, all the meaning of the word Kazakh is “the brave and free people who migrate freely on the vast grassland”;

The fifth point of view is that the ancestors of the Kazakhs are the segments living in Central Asia from the 7th to the 4th century BC to the 4th century BC. Some scholars believe that the word “Kazakhstan” is a combination of the two tribes of the ancient “Sak” (SAK) people living in the ancient “Kaspey” in Central Asia and the two tribes of the ancient “SAK) people living in the Ili River Basin. The ancient sound of the word “plug” is “SAK”, which is very appropriate to translate the seeding person

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The source of the Kazakh tribe is relatively complicated. It is generally believed that it is mainly ancient Wusun, Kangju, Alan (Qi Cai), and the Saiyue, Da Yueshi, and the Huns, Xianbei and Rou who were originally in the Central Asian grassland, and the Huns, Xianbei, and Rou who later entered this area. However, it was formed by the integration of Turkic, Tiele, Khitan, Mongolia and other ethnic groups. From the strong Mongolian nation in the early 13th century to the establishment of the Kazakh dynasty in the 15th century, some tribes and clans of the Kazakh sources have accelerated the pace of joint. The ultimate formation of the Kazakh nation community has a close relationship with the historically “white account” sweat state.

At the beginning of the 13th century, Genghis Khan commented in the west, and the tribes such as Wusun, Krem, Naiman were also forced to move west. The Mongolian Empire’s Golden Express Khanate, Chahatai Khanate, and Wo Kuotai Khanate are in some areas of Kazakhs. Soon, due to the division of the leader, the new separatist situation of the Golden Express Khanate was unified in the 14th century in the 14th century.

The ancestors of the Kazakhs have established a regional regime. This regime is in history

It is called Kazakh Khanate. In 1456, Krekhan and Janbei Khan led the country to leave the country of Uzbeki, and moved to Monterorstein in the east. These herdsmen who are out of Uzbek Khanate are known as Kazakhs. They have established a Kazakh Khanate headed by Krekhan in the new pastoral area with a population of 200,000.

In the seventh year of Mingjingtai (1456), the last son of the Khan Khan country Klikhan and Janimi Khan lived up to the expectations of the Khan country. Political entities, Kazakh Khan, lived a peaceful and stable life, which attracted a large number of nomadic tribes to join.

After the establishment of Kazakh Khanate, the Kazakhs have been independent politically, the economy has developed rapidly, and the territory of Khanate has continued to expand. In the early 1950s and early 1970s, Kazakh Khanate had the Qincha Prairie and Central Asia’s Answers, Turkistan, Ulgenqi and other places. In 1500, occupying the middle of the river. By the 1920s, the territory of Kazakh Khanate was included in the south, including the Syl River Basin, the southeast included the Qihe region, the northeast included the east and southern parts of Lake Balkhaz, and the west included the Jade Cock River Basin and other places. From 1698 to 1718, many tribes in the Kazakh tribe were divided into three jadeizes according to the tribal genealogy. Da Yuzi is called the right, mainly distributed in the Chu River, Tallas River, and the Ili River from the Yili River from the south of Lake Balcashi. The Xia Ranch is in the middle reaches of the Sir River and the Kara Mountains. Essence

At the end of the 17th century, the Junggar Ministry, one of the four Mongolian Weilat, began to become stronger and continued to expand outward. In the 1970s, the Galdan of the Junggar Ministry expanded south to Qinghai and western Xinjiang, and the Ministry of Kazakh was often invaded by the Junggar Ministry. Kazakh Khanate declined. Since then, the Kazakhs have launched a struggle against the Junggar feudal noble group.

In the middle of the 18th century, the Qing government calmed down the Junggar Noble rebellion and unified Xinjiang, so as to

The development of multi -ethnic groups in the Western Regions provides good conditions. In 1766, the Qing government ordered General Yili: “Yili and other places are vast, and the more people smoke, the better. If Kazakhs must not be nomadic, or fear the looting, the attachment is willing to keep it.” In 1767, the Qing government informed Kazakhsaka Jade Zikhan Abu 赉: “Kazakh herdsmen can nominate in Ili and other places.” In this way, since the 1960s, Kazakhstan began to move to the nomads of his hometown of his ancestors (ancestors), the hometown of the ancestors (ancestors). The main move to the Yili area is the Heazai Tribe of the Zhongyuzi, as well as the Aleban of the Da Yuzi, the Suwan Tribe, etc.; Wait for tribes. Since then, the economic and cultural exchanges between the Kazakhs and the Mainland have become more frequent.

In 1864, China and Russia signed the “Survey of the Northwest Realm”. Tsarist Russia invaded the large territory of the northwestern border of China. motherland. The Qing government implemented a thousand households on the basis of the Kazakhs under its jurisdiction on the basis of the original clan tribe. Officials are divided into thousands of households, hundreds of households, Taiji, and public. The Kazakhs began to pay taxes, fulfill their national obligations, and eventually accepted the direct jurisdiction of the Central Dynasty.

哈萨克族(中亚大草原的牧羊人)

During the Revolution of 1911, the Kazakhs and the people of Xinjiang together overthrew the rule of the Qing government in Xinjiang, and quickly awakened under the influence of the Spumonic trend of the Revolution of 1911. In 1912, Altayzak Realia, Bymura and others led the Kazakh Mission to Beijing. For the bell, there are 12 auspiciouss and 12 Ucukai.

During the New Democratic Revolution, the Kazakhs and Han and other nations together supported each other, united, and overthrew the Kuomintang reactionaries in Xinjiang.

All Kazakh people in history belong to a certain clan tribe. Since the end of the 16th century, the Kazakhs and its distribution areas have been divided into three “Yuz”, namely Ulayuz (Daluz), Oru Yuz (Zhongyuz) and Qiqike Yuz (Xiao Yuzi), In the Qing Dynasty literature, it is called the right, left and west, respectively. Among them, Eltuyuz has the largest number and the strongest power, and the clan tribe world system is also most complete. my country’s Kazakhs are mainly tribes of Ulaulz and Oruyuz.

The Kazakh clan tribes were originally blood groups of different sizes, such as Abbucks -the Krem tribe, there are Jiangte Kochi, Ja Di, Jeoruch, Salbas, Karacas, Gascana , Titler, Chibara Yickel, Contempt Qier, Kangshadaq, Himo Ying and other 12 clans. The smallest production organization and nomadic settlement inside the tribe are called “A Ul”, and most of them are descendants of the same ancestors and father, but sometimes there are a few members of the non -blood relationship, most of which are herdsmen who are attached to poverty. The difference between the rich and the poor is also obviously reflected in the “A Ul”. The size of “A Ul” is different, some three, five, and more than ten, and some. The Kazakhs called the Blood Group of the clan tribe “Yeli”. “Jele” is named after the ancestor. Through the family of the clan tribe, it can not only see the reproduction of “Yeli”, but also understand the relationship between them.

Kazakh’s clan tribe has a history of hundreds of years, but there are still certain restrictions on internal intermarriage, generally outside the 7th generation. Under the conditions of nomadic production methods, it is difficult for a single household to resist the attack of natural disasters and the enemy. Only a relatively stable organization can ensure the safety of life and livestock. needs. Although in the process of historical development, due to war, migration and other reasons, the internal relationship of “Jerry” has become quite relaxed, and it has essentially become a tool used by the feudal ruling class. However, under the strong maintenance of the feudal ruling group composed of nobles and bloggers, the clan tribe, as a form of social organization, has been established in New China.

Since the beginning of the 13th century, the Western Regions are the territories of Genghis Khan’s son Chahetai and Wo Kuotai.

Essence The Kazakhs have been under the rule of Mongolia for a long time. The upper -level “Khan” and “Sudan” of the clan tribe group are charged by the Mongolian aristocracy. They are descendants of Genghis Khan, called “Tori” (white bones). The ruled labor herders are called “Hara” (black bone), which is a pariah. There are strict grades and cheapness between “white bone head” and “black bone head”, and cannot be married. There are also the lowest social status “bitter” and “Kun”, which are slaves of men and women. The feudal rulers of all ages have always worshiping and using the Kazakh nobility and the bloggers to rule the majority of Kazakh people. For example, the Kazakh nobles, heads, Taishi, Ukulta, Zharian, Zangen, etc. in the Kazakhs, heads, Taeji, Ukulta, Zhayan, and Zangen in the Qing Dynasty; Positions such as household lengths, hundreds of households.

After the Revolution of 1911, warlord Yang Zengxin changed thousands of households and hundreds of households to farmers and townships. During the period of the Kuomintang’s rule, the A -sacrifice system was promoted in the Kazakh region, and the Kazakh head was appointed as the head of the district township. Despite the change of dynasty, “the stones are flowing in the water”, the power of the Kazakh blogitors not only has never weakened, but instead gets more “legal” privileges. Since the Qing Dynasty, the larger bloggers except for the livestock tax to exempt all taxes and services, and have the power to politics, justice, and levy taxes. As for the “Lie Lie” from the noble tribe, they have a higher status and greater power. The Tori County of Xinjiang is the place where the noble tribe is located. There is also a proverb in the Kazakhs. With the presence of Genghis Khan’s descendants as the leader, some tribes also invited “Toro” as the leader. The Kazakh tribe heads are feudal herdsmen of different sizes, and most of them are poor herders, and the distinction between grades and classes is basically the same.

In addition to the nobles, bloggers, and shepherds of the Kazakh Kazakhs, there are also “comparisons”. “Bi” is generally born in a wealthy pastoral family, knows the habit of the tribe, is good at resigning, and is recognized as a mediation dispute. The Kazakhs have no authored laws, but each tribe has unwritten traditional habitual laws. Its content mainly includes the protection of private property, the privilege of the blogger, and the consolidation and solidarity of the tribe. When the property, marriage, or other issues occur within the tribe, “Bi” means mediation and processing in accordance with the tribal habitual law. Usually “nine penalties” are used to compensate 9 livestock methods, and severe cases are doubled as appropriate. Because the Kazakh’s customary method has long been feudal, and in essence has become a tool for protecting the interests of the exploitation, “Bi” can also explain the customary method arbitrarily. Therefore, there is no justice between feudal herdsmen and poor herders.

Kazakh

Essence

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Essence

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Claim

history

politics

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For a long time, the concept of tribal is a means to control the people of labor. The tribal head tried his best to promote the unity of the department to ease and cover up the internal class contradictions. The Kazakh tribe has the habit of revenge “with blood and blood, and hurts”. This is often used by the leader as the opportunity to scam money, so as to cause personal problems that occur between different tribes and cause tribal disputes. In the case of this situation, the tribal head will emphasize the honor and interests of the tribe, and provoke large -scale fighting in the name of revenge. When people occur, the tribal head leads the masses to “revenge” the deceased, asking the other party to use livestock to pay for the fate. The fate of the payment is shared by all members of the “Yeli” of the murderer. Generally, men’s lives are 200 horses, and women are halved, and the nobles are 7 times higher than civilians. However, the family members of the deceased can only get a small part of the fate price, and most of them belong to the upper layers of the tribe and powerful people. It can be seen that tribal habitual laws and so -called interests and unity of the tribe are very hypocritical.

Before the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the clan tribe organization of the Kazakhs fully reflects the characteristics and content of the feudal system of the ancestral law, that is, the feudal exploitation system is combined with the parent system of the clan tribe. From Torite to A Ulbas’s tribal heads, they have great power to herdsmen. According to traditional regulations, the first hunting of herders to be hunting every year, dedicated to the nobility, and cannot enjoy themselves. In A Uline, the time and route of the transfer of the pasture, as well as the disputes, and the resolution of the stalls, the intercourse, and the resolution of the diplomatic agency, and the resolution of the disputes, and the commission to make the herders and their livestock are also taken for granted. It can be seen that the ruling group composed of nobles and tribal heads not only plunder the people in the economy, but also a political privilege class, and the majority of labor herders are in a completely unpredictable position.

On November 27, 1954, Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture was established. Later, due to the inconvenience in the severe winter season, it was reported to the State Council for approval and changed the state celebration to September 1st each year. Yili Kazakhon Autonomous Prefecture has two counties and cities in Tacheng, Altay, and states. The Kazakhs, who lived in the former Haixi Mongolian Tibetan Kazakh, Haixi Mongolian Tibetan in Qinghai Province, returned to Xinjiang in June 1984 under the care of the Party Central Committee and the State Council. In the area where the Kazakh people live in relative to live, 13 ethnic towns have also been established. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the state implements a stable policy of regardless of dispersion, fighting, incompetence, and irregularities. At the same time, considering the interests of the poor herders, the double profit of the pastoral and herders has improved the labor remuneration of the pastoral workers. The feudal privilege of the tribal leader, the same “Ayuler” ordinary herdsmen or poor herders with relatives and friends, spontaneously organize temporary or perennial mutual aid groups.

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Essence

culture

Belief

Shaman

哈萨克族(中亚大草原的牧羊人)

The Kazakhs first worshiped nature and worshiped the gods. In ancient times, they lived nomadic life on the vast grassland. Through the worship of nature, the livestock and life were safe and sound, and they defeated various disasters, suffering and diseases.

Many clan tribal peoples such as the ancient seeds, the Huns, Wusun, and Kangju worshiped the moon, the sun, the stars, the fire, and a certain animal. The Kazakhs worshiped the gods and water gods, for which they worshiped Dashan, Qifeng, caves, rivers, independent trees and spring water. They will sacrifice cattle and sheep with such sacred places with such natural landscapes, hold sacrifice activities, and worship.

The Kazakhs originally thought that the heavenly heaven was a great god and the god. In some gods

In the legend, people think that there are human beings in the sky. Their belts are tied around their necks, and humans are between the two (heaven and earth), so the belt is tied around the waist, and the underground people tie their belts on their feet. They all admire their respective sun, moon, and stars. The Kazakh people created these myths and spread them according to the beliefs of the Three Realms. Among the Kazakh people, people will curse a person: “bombarded by heaven”, or evaluate a person who is like “heavenly irritability”, or the heroes who are very heroic for generations are “descendants of the gods”. Faith is related.

During the summer drought or plague, the Kazakhs were slaughtered on the river bank or some places they worshiped. Everyone will be surrounded by a high ground, praying to the heavens, “seeking rainfall and vomiting green on the earth.” After converting to Islam, it was combined with Islamic teaching rules and worshiped.

The Kazakhs still retain the religious customs worshiping the moon. Like many ancient nations, the Kazakhs also worshiped fire, prayed for lights, and called the fire as “fire mother” to worship. Because they believe that fire is a sacred power, its own profound connotation, and the divine power that drives the demon, is noble. It is believed that the fire is the savior of the Kazakhs, and has the power to get rid of the disaster.

When the Kazakh people are born, they have to pour fuel to the fire and ignite the long lights for seven consecutive days. Young people gathered together, singing and dancing, called “Qilidahana” -the baby birth ceremony. According to the ancient myths and legends of the Kazakh people, this custom stems from the faith of fire can drive evil.

In the mythology of Kazakhs, since ancient times, it has been related to the deities. People think that natural power, natural phenomena are life, and they all control them. These masters are divided into two types: “god” and “disaster”. The gods seek benefits for humans and livestocks and protect them; disasters bring them disease, plague, disaster, misfortune, and suffering. People think that the gods and disasters are always fighting.

The situation of Shaman believes that the situation of the dead has nothing to do with the god of heaven, and it is related to the good or bad of the funeral of his relatives. After the Kazakhs converted to Islam, these customs also changed with Islamic education. Some old customs and etiquette of worshiping the soul of the ancestors are combined with Islamic customs and integrate them.

The wizarding doctor in the Kazakhs was a representative of the Shamanism before converting to Islam. The Kazakhs call the man with Shaman’s ability and skills as “Baks” and women are called “Husi Nesi”. They are considered to be appreciated and assisted by the gods and can talk to the gods. They can connect the relationship between the gods and people. They are angels who often meet the souls and gods of the dead, and are people with awareness. They can call the gods, talk to the gods, and talk to the gods. They swim in the Quartet, ask the hexagrams, predict the future. They are divining by looking at hand or using sheep dung eggs to predict people’s future destiny. They drive away the veins for people or ghosts. They also used drugs to treat patients. When calling the gods, each wizard has his own tunes, the winter Buqu or Hu Bozi. The Kazakh Wizards worshiped “Holhurt” as the father of the wizard. Some wizards are covered with white swans, various cloth strips on their necks, canes, and wandering around. In ancient times, the wizard enjoyed a high prestige. When people have a disease, they will invite the wizard or make a special visit to seek medical medicine.

Islam

哈萨克族(中亚大草原的牧羊人)

After the Kazakhs converted to Islam, there were still many wizards. However, with the changes of the times, they have lost their supreme status, and wizarding medical activities also tend to be Islamic teaching rules; they will supplement the ancient Shamanism to supplement Allah is true. Until now, there are still wizards among the Kazakh people. They (others) are wearing swan leather hats, various colored cloths hanging around their necks, and a god stick in their hands, riding a horse from this Awine to that Aule to travel, Divination, chanting, cure, and eliminating evil. These wizards are still welcomed by women and the elderly.

In the area where the Kazakh people in Xinjiang, the mosques and scriptures were started until the end of the 18th and early 19th centuries. Prior to this, the Kazakhs had no mosques, worshiping and festival prayer and other activities in the open air. Especially after the Qing Dynasty army calmed down the Junggar aristocratic riots, there were many mosques and scriptures built in Ili, Talbhahatai, and Altay. At the same time, many rural areas have opened the school school and private school scholarship.

The extensive spread of Islam has turned a variety of religions that have been spread in this area into a religion, and multi -divine religion has become a divine religion.

architecture

The place where the Kazakh people live are divided into winter nests, spring nests, summer nests, and autumn nests. Generally, spring and autumn are one place. In winter, living in a house or a dry -bearing house, the forest area passes the winter in the wooden house, and lives in the felt house in other seasons. Several households are called an Awell. Awaler is composed of people with blood relationships. The places where the lives live are connected, cooperated with production, and moved to migration together. The felt house is a simple active house from one habitat to another from one habitat to another. The felt room is sunny, the night is tide, the windshield is anti -rain, the ventilation is translucent, and the movement is convenient. Generally, it can support the disassembly and loading within 30 minutes.

The felt houses of the wealthy family are very particular about it. There are different patterns with different cloth cuts, which are modified. There are wall felt and colorful felt around the crab. The ground is covered with flowers, embroidered felt, carpets. The rich people’s felt rooms, lacquer lacquer, inlaid with carved bone ornaments and silver jewelry.

Kazakh herdsmen from the end of the autumn of that year (that is, from November to March

Kazakh

), The place of residence fixed in the past six months is called Winter Wozi. Winter Wozi usually chooses to avoid the wind, there are water and firewood, and the sun in the river. The housing buildings of the winter ranch depends on the geography, nature, and climate of the residence: wooden houses are built in the forest area; the lives of small forests with soil blocks, stones or dry beating areas are used as walls, and square flat houses are built. The house is built next to the house. The structure of the dome warehouse is similar to that of the felt room. The bottom is round or multi -prism. The wall is made of soil or stone into two and a half meters. The roof is arched with a pillar -like tweeter and arched into a round shape. The end of the mule is located on the wall of the stone or soil block, and the other end is fixed on the ring. Cover the reed or branches outside and apply mud. There are four or six columns in it, and the middle of the round warehouse can be raised. Smoke goes out from the top circle, cook in the winter, and smokes the winter slaughtering meat hanging on the column. Next to the housing of the winter nest, stones, dry beating, and branches are built into a animal circle. The haystacks used in winter are piled up by the circle, and there are horses in the middle of the circle.

After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the people’s government fully considers that the Hascus shepherds lived in water and grass for the convenience of pony and sheep. They moved with water and grass, and they encountered great difficulties in their children’s schooling and medical treatment. In order to completely solve this problem, the party and people’s governments have planned to create settings or semi -settings, and the Hesdoor of the Kazakhs has gradually turned to the combination of settlement and driving her animal husbandry. Most of the settlements still set up after the 1970s were built after the 1970s

apparel

Kazakh clothing has strong national characteristics. “Twamak” is a hat worn by the Kazakh man in winter with two ear fans, and there is a long tail fan that can cover the snow and avoid the cold. The caps in the hat generally use black lamb or fox skin, and face with colorful satin. In winter, we wear a dome hat called “Polk”. Generally, it is made of beast skin such as otters, minks, foxes, and lambskin. The man’s leather jacket or leather pants in the winter, the leather jacket or leather pants and the wolf skin, the fox skin or other precious animal skin (with cloth surface) sewn. Most of the belts are made of cowhide, and they are wide and narrow. They are inlaid with gold, silver, corals, pearls, gems and other accessories. In summer, the aged Kazakh men generally wear soft boots and jackets to protect the boots. Young men wear long leather boots. The hunter wore high -top soft boots that are convenient for sale. In addition, men in high -cold areas also wear warmth -keeping felt boots.

The clothing of the Kazakh women is more complicated than male clothing, there are many styles, and the workmanship is extremely particular, and with the changes in age, the dress is also different. Women’s headdress has two types of hats and headscarves. Girls have wearing “Takya” since childhood. This hat shell is harder, flat top, and the top of the top has an auspicious owl feather, which is dazzling with glorious pearl jade. “Shawa Kliel” is a scoop hat worn by the girls when they get married. The inner layers are thin felt, the outer satin is covered, and the wall embroidery has a pattern with various deformations with flowers and beast horns. Essence The clothes of the little girl are mostly covered with silver, copper or buttons. The girl and the girl wearing the cuffs with cross -stitching lace and a poly pleated dress with a hem. Silver jewelry with bright crystals. The unmarried girl is wearing a white underwear, with geometric patterns in the collar and cuff embroidery, and a lace shoulder on the outside. The hem is a double -layered coat skirt with a double lace. Zhubei et al. Middle -aged women are embroidered with colored velvet on their chests and hems in the warm season. There are two half -sleeved long plackets and shoulders on both sides; “衣 中” made of fox legs and lamb skin tailors in winter. The otter leather is pressed by the edge, with various patterns in the front and hem, the leather coat “Kuru” covered with satin surface. Women’s shoes and boots have a lot of style. Generally, they are wearing “buying Si” (soft -bottomed boots) and coats “boils”. The wealthy women’s boots and shoes and socks are more particular about. They have various decorations on the “booster” they wear, and they have patterns on the embroidery of “Buy Si”.

With the impact of the economic tide, the clothing style of the Kazakhs has been updated, which is not much different from the clothing worn by most nations

diet

哈萨克族(中亚大草原的牧羊人)

The diet of the Kazakhs is closely related to nomadic life, mainly in tea, meat, milk and pasta. In the daily diet of the Kazakhs, there is no vegetables for a day, but you must not have tea a day. Three meals a day, two meals during the day, mainly drinking tea or milk tea cooked by brick tea and tea. The method of milk tea is to add some salt to the fried thick tea. Fried noodles and wheat, this is breakfast and lunch. Eat a staple food with meat and noodles at night, drink a lot of tea, can drive the cold in winter, and the summer can solve the heat. Because of more meat, drinking tea can help digestion and increase nutrition.

When the winter is approaching, when the snow is about to be sealed, the Kazakhs will kill some horses.

Rich food

, Cow and sheep, process some meat into horse intestines, beef enema, smoked meat, fried slices, etc. as winter storage, so that the processed meat can be eaten in the spring of the coming year.

The Kazakhs’ dairy products are mainly made of goat milk, milk, horse milk, and camel milk. There is a proverb saying: “Milk is the food of Kazakhstan.” It can be seen the weight of dairy products in Kazakh food. The types of dairy products are mainly fresh tits, yogurt, milk, milk tofu, milk, butter, milk cake, horse milk, etc. Because the nomadic life needs to be relocated, the production methods of the Kazakh noodles are also simple and convenient, and are not restricted by conditions. Traditional pasta mainly includes barbecue cakes, oil cakes, fried wheat, and “that kernel” (cut cooked lamb into small pieces to cover A diet on the noodles), “Baoer Shak” (sheep frying dough) and so on.

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Essence

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In addition to some of the above -mentioned diets living in the city, the Kazakhs also learned to make various flavors of meals with the brothers around them, and the diet structure tended to diverse. At the same time, the in turn affects the Kazakhs in the agricultural and pastoral areas, which enriches their dining table. Uyghur’s rice intestines, facial lungs, and Hui’s powder soup, etc.

[1]

Essence

etiquette

In the daily life of the Kazakhs, “Bata” (that is, blessings) is everywhere, no

Kazakh

哈萨克族(中亚大草原的牧羊人)

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Don’t talk about it. For example, from the birth of the baby, the name to the marriage, from the slaughter of animals, the use of rice to going out to work, relocating different places, from birthdays to festivals, people naturally take “Bata” as an important etiquette to express Won a good wish for things. For different objects, the blessing content of “Bata” is also different. For example, when you are a guest at other people’s house, you will cause “Bata” before meals. ) Food is often there, I wish your family happy and happy. ” The Kazakhs believe that the power of “Bata” is mysterious and powerful. Some proverbs say: “Rain dyeing green land, Bata achieves heroes”, “beautiful Bata can make a person better luck, but without Bata, but without Bata Make a person in doom. “

In the place where the Kazakhs live, the elderly are very respected regardless of whether men and women and the rich. Seeing them, the juniors had to give a greeting, and replaced their names with “Aksahahler” (old man), “Apa” (aunt) and other names. When the old man speaks, the juniors must not interrupt the intercourse, let alone smoke and drink in front of them. When the old man dismissed, his juniors came out to welcome, helped him, and tied the horse. When entering the house, let the elderly be advanced and sit in the middle of the house. When eating meat, enjoy the lamb head and lamb legs to the elderly.

The Eli etiquette runs through the entire life of the Kazakhs. Congratulations to the birth of babies, congratulations to men and women, and others, etc. As long as there are big things worthy of festive things, women will hold a handful of delicious dry foods such as candy, milk, Baoer Shak, etc. from time to time. The ground is throwing towards the happy crowd in order to show joy and happiness and sharing. People will catch the candy with joy and rush to eat “Satta”

literature

The Kazakh folk songs mostly expressed the production and life, customs, and conceptual beliefs of the ancient clan tribe; there were also some folk songs that were adapted to the social environment of the time in the later period. The content of these folk literature works is closely related to the ancient customs and interests, becoming an inseparable part, and is directly used in lifestyle.

哈萨克族(中亚大草原的牧羊人)

Some of the ancient folk songs concentratedly reflect the theme of worshiping nature. In ancient times, people could not understand the mystery of the natural world, thinking that language and prayers could affect nature. Therefore, in daily life and production, they are committed to getting rid of natural disasters with mysterious spells. One of them is prayer songs with the effect of calling wind and rain. Most of these folk songs are chanting at the ceremony for praying for the rain. People generally believe that the wizards throw a stone that made a magic stone into the water, and then supplemented by sacred prayer songs. Then, Wuyun will gather together. Together, bringing heavy rain. With their sincere emotions, they prayed to the sky, to the god of water, and to the cloud god. They believe that the reason why the earth is drought is because the “melanic” and “yellow pots” are empty, making the land of the land unbearable, and the human and animals are unbearable. In life, if the worm was spunled, the Kazakhs would use special spells to clear the poison, and they cursed the god of poisonous insects through such spells. There is a kind of poisoning song called a repellevation song. In the exorcism, the evil spirits are mostly driven to the skeleton that the evil spirits or the enemy or to the enemy or the mother -in -law. When a plague occurs in human and animals, the young people in the village will fire a fire on the village and sing the evil song of evil spirits overnight. Exorcism songs show all the tricks used by the gods of the disaster. They also express the singer’s desire to drive the disaster and pray for the desire of health.

The folk songs related to the primitive religious beliefs gradually integrated with the customs of Shamanism with the changes of the times. Among the Kazakh people, this kind of folk songs often sang from Shaman, and later called it “the song of the wizard (Shaman).” Over time, the song of this wizard has gradually enriched the content and form. The content of the wizard’s song is mostly the master of the disaster, intimidating it with mysterious spells, smoking it with fire; This kind of folk song mainly reflects the psychological and religious beliefs and totem worship consciousness of praying for the blessing of the upper and blessings. Among them, there is also the content of worship of the ancestors that rarely worships the ancestors in the past, and the worship of spiritual people.

The ancient folk songs were widely circulated, and a more genre using more was prayer. This is a folk ballad fast board created based on national customs and created for expressing sincere feelings. Many customs in the lives of the ancient Kazakh people were indispensable for prayer. And almost all prayers have a common content, that is, praying to gain well -being. “Amen, I pray for you”, and always connects the advent of happiness with the god of happiness. The Kazakh people think that “the good voice is half of the wealth”, so he cherishes sincere prayers. In front of the court, it is great to get the prayer and blessings of the highly respected elders or the famous wizards. People even think that the well -being of prayer will be passed down from generation to generation. Because prayer and blessings are genre with permanent appeal, it is still widely circulated among people.

The richest ethnic characteristics in the Kazakh folk songs are singing. Singing is two Arkem (that is, the singer) improvisation. Among the Kazakh people, singing skills are quite popular. In the baby’s birth etiquette and wedding ceremony, people gathered together, formed each other, and began to sing. Even on the occasion of leisurely grazing, on the way to a long relocation, or on the way to visit relatives, or at home, people meet by accident and use the method of singing. Greetings, jokes with each other, and compete with each other. This phenomenon has become popular. Sometimes, the people who sing are not all agile, clever, and Aken, but they can generally use the form of singing to communicate. From a formal point of view, the original form of singing and genuine is learning tongue -like singing. The first two sentences of lyrics are common. That is, the first two lyrics sang the previous Aken, repeated again from the latter Arkem, and then improvised each other.

Arkan’s singing is a very vitality folk literature genre. To this day, there are still many popular singing works circulating among the masses. Now Ili Kazakh’s Autonomous Prefecture has organized the Arkano concert every year and counties. Now the content of Arken’s singing follows the times, and has also greatly improved singing skills.

Art

music

The national musical instruments of the Kazakhs include Dongbu and Habitz and Subzi.

哈萨克族(中亚大草原的牧羊人)

Winter Bula is particularly loved by the Kazakh people. It uses birch and other materials to make piano body and use sheep intestine to make string. In the past, there were two types of shovel and horse spoon -shaped. Now there is a folk new winter in winter that knead these two forms.

Various instruments of the Kazakhs are easy to carry and easy to perform. Songs and singing are extensive mass

dance

Traditional Kazakh dances are characterized by imitating birds and beasts. They are exaggerated and humorous, exquisite, vivid and vivid, and have strong expressiveness and appeal.

Traditional dances are “Hara Daha” (also translated “Black Horse”)

custom

festival

The Kazakh’s festivals are closely related to religious beliefs, just like other peoples who believe in Islam. The main festivals are in addition to the meat festivals and the Gulbang Festival, as well as the “Nawu Meat” festival.

Although the “Ganzi Festival” and “Gurbon Festival” originated from religion, it has become the Kazakh festivals with strong national characteristics and is a national festival.

The “Nawu Meat Festivals” is the traditional festival before the Kazakhs believe in Islam, which is equivalent to the Spring Festival. The Kazakhs have used the dwelling calendar for a long time. The starting point of these zodiac chronology is the same spring breeze (March 22), called “ULES” or “Naw -Rez”. “Nawu” means “New Year”. The zodiac is converted from the day of “Nawu’s Meat”. This day is considered as a replacement of the old and new, called “Ules Kuni”. On the day of “Nawu”, every family made “Nawu’s meat” porridge. The Kazakh people are in groups, walking through the village, drinking porridge at home, chanting the poem “Na Wu’s meat”, hugging the New Year, and wishing the New Year’s livestock and a harvest of crops. After cooking the meat prepared by the meat festival, the elderly who need to be respected, the elderly give a greeting, wish the animal a prosperous, and the milk is abundant.

Love

In the old society, women in the Kazakhs have the custom of Cai Caica.

The number of Cai Li depends on the status property of both families. Except

Kazakh wedding

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Outside of the ceremony, the man would also give the woman’s parents breastfeeding, festive gifts, and clothes to relatives (Kitter), and the female family set up dowry according to the number of gifts. Put a new house for your daughter, install camels, prepare horses, and wear flower hats. Send clothing to the men and relatives of the man, prepare for clothing, dowry five, seven, and nine copies of the number of clothing. Some people with less financial resources are popular between each other or Harse Hudaleh, that is, marry the daughter to the other son’s son, and marry the other daughter as a daughter -in -law. Sometimes the poor can’t afford the gift, and they are helpful by relatives, friends and clan.

哈萨克族(中亚大草原的牧羊人)

The Kazakh wedding customs especially emphasized lifelong marriage, so there were almost no before the Kazakhs had divorced, and it was rare now.

funeral

Kazakh’s funeral customs are carried out in accordance with Islamic teaching rules. After being cleaned by the deceased, he wrapped his head from the bottom with a white cloth, his face was in the direction of Mecca, covered with a clean headscarf on his face, wrapped the body with a cloth, and the close relatives were guarded by the deceased. The person who came to the funeral entered the house to say goodbye to the dead body, comforted the deceased’s relatives and friends, then washed the corpse, wrapped it with white cloth, for the atonement, and the post was scattered (the deceased relatives participated

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The white handkerchiefs, sugar and other things emitted by the funeral), tied a few livestock to the door with a flower rope, and presided over the rope to host the atonement to redeem the debt of the homework and other homework that the deceased, recitation, and other homework. Pass the rope to the Mara sitting above the corpse. Maorakou reads “acceptance”, connected to the rope and returned. How old is the deceased, how many times they take. The unwavering child died, because of purity and innocence, and did not be atonement. Since then, these livestocks have given to the helpless people or giving Mao. After reading the funeral, the relatives of the deceased asked everyone, what kind of person is the deceased, and everyone said in unison that the deceased’s heart was kind, and he hoped that he had a firm faith, lived in heaven forever, and soul. Then transport the body to the cemetery. If the cemetery is far away, put the corpse on the camel and cover the face with a blanket. There are two types of tombs: straight and side points. The corpse lying on his head facing the south, facing the north, facing the west (the direction of the Michael Tianfang). Before the corpse entered the tomb, the person who came and the burial was sprinkled with a handful of the soil. Then put the corpse in the hole and buried it.

The Kazakh’s funeral tradition was mixed with early Shamanism ruins. In the past, the Kazakh tribe tied seven or nine horses on the threshold of the corpse house, or other livestock. During his lifetime, the killer took the horse to put the horse’s head on the grave. At the same time, the bow, spear, saddle, utensils, food, drinks are also placed on the grave head. I think people have to live after death. According to the Islamic rules, only white cloth and clothing are buried, so the Kazakhs no longer slaughter the livestock tied to the flowers, but instead give Mara and the helpless people.

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