The earliest bicycle was called “bicycle”, and the last century was a luxury

As one of the ways of green travel, bicycles are becoming more and more popular, and even representatives are ride on bicycles. In fact, China was once known as a bicycle country. In 1995, there were 8.31 million bicycles in Beijing, ranking first in cities across the country. So when did the first bicycle in Beijing history appear? Who is the first person to ride a bicycle in Beijing?

In the seven years of Qing Tongzhi, Zhang Deyi mentioned the “bicycle” for the first time

“One round of each round”, “sitting one person”, “shaking the first”

The word “bicycle” appeared in my country, but for more than a hundred years of history. The earliest was called “bicycle”, and the first one who called it “bicycle” was Zhang Deyi in the late Qing Dynasty.

Zhang Deyi, also known as Zhang Deming, Manchu, was born in the Tieling of Shengjing (now Cai Niu Township, Hexi, Tieling, Liaoning). He went abroad eight times and spent 27 years abroad. Every time he goes abroad, he wrote a detailed diary to record what he saw abroad.

In the seventh year of the Tongzhi of the Qing Dynasty (1868), Zhang Deyi was appointed by the Qing court to visit Europe for a visit. After returning to China, the “European and American Travels” he wrote described the first time when he saw a bicycle on the streets of London, UK: “One round of each round, one, one, two inches (should be” ruler “), small (small”), small small), small (should be “ruler”), small The person inch (ruler), sitting on one person, rotating the string, shaking the head, his hand pressed the axis from the machine, and pushed back and forth, took care of it, and was very interesting. “Since then, he has seen a bicycle in Paris, France again. : “Seeing the tourists who ride two rounds of bicycles, the western name is’ Weirou Siza”, which is made of steel. On the top, holding the rudder with both hands, walking on the axis of the feet, running a row, getting rid of the horses. There are small boxes on the tail of the beam to give up the luggage. Rent the car, use several squares (francs) every time, and there are iron houses. It is a place for the exercise. “It can be seen that at that time, there were a lot of bicycles in Paris, France, and there were also bicycle leasing industries and places to learn riding. This is the earliest written record of the term “bicycle” in China. It has been widely used since then until today.

自行车最早被称为“脚踏车”,上世纪曾是奢侈品

Emperor Guangxu was reprimanded by the Empress Dowager Cixi

“The Lord of the Dynasties is stable, how can you be happy with the ‘rotary’?”

There are historical records: In November of the seven years of Tongzhi (1868) in Tongzhi in the Qing Dynasty, Shanghai was first shipped from Europe to several bicycles from Europe. But this is a kind of mobility that walks on the car and led the car with both feet. When will the bicycle appear in Beijing? In fact, there is no exact record. According to rumors, it was originally appeared in the concession of Xizhong Lane. It is also rumored that Beijing’s first bicycle was dedicated to Emperor Guangxu by foreigners in the 1870s. At that time, the bicycle had not adopted a chain transmission, but the pedal was connected to the front wheels, and the front wheel was driven to drive the rear wheels. A horizontal wood was installed on the front wheel as a handrail. It was very difficult to ride. At that time, it was just regarded as a fresh and exciting thing. It is said that Emperor Guangxu was novel about the bicycle. Under the “guidance” of foreigners, I tried to ride a few times and felt very interesting, but was interfered by the Empress Dowager Cixi. The rotor ‘is happy, what kind of body? “

During the late Guangxu period, there were occasional bicycles on the streets of Beijing. At that time, there was a “Bamboo Branch” singing: “The arms are high -shoulders and unlimped, and they are bowed to respect and add.

There is a precise record in the Forbidden City that the first bicycle is the last emperor Puyi. When Puyi was 16 years old in 1922, his cousin Pu Jia gave him a bicycle as a gift. For this reason, Pu Jia was also reprimanded by the court master Chen Baochen, saying that he should not presented this kind of danger to the emperor and broke the emperor. For the sake of happiness, under the protection of the eunuch, he learned to ride a bicycle for a few days. Since then, he often took the attendant to ride in the palace. He recalled in “My First Half of Life”: “In order to ride a bicycle, our ancestors have not felt inconvenient for hundreds of years, and people have seen all the time.” At a salary of 100 month, he hires a Speed ​​Li San as a bicycle teaching (coach). According to the Qing Palace archives, Pu Yi stayed in the palace more than 20 bicycles, all of which were stored in the Yuxuexuan in the Garden Garden. Xue Xuexuan used to be the place where the Emperor Qianlong chanted poems and appreciated flowers.

It is stipulated by the Republic of China to ride a bicycle

“After the sunset, driving before dawn, you must hang a white light in front of the car”

In the early days of the Republic of China, bicycles had appeared on the streets of Beijing, but only large families with strong family members and a few people who returned from abroad. Bicycles are regarded as a luxury product, a symbol of wealth and identity. It was not until the early 1920s that bicycles became a emerging mobility tools that generally appeared on the streets of Beijing. At that time, the bicycles on the market were all western goods, and the brands were the most loud of the “cousins”, “blue cards”, “diamonds” of Britain and Germany. After the “July 7th Incident” in 1937, as Japan’s aggression on China continued to deepen, most of the bicycles on the streets of Beijing were Japanese goods (commonly known as Toyo). ,”chrysanthemum”. Relatively speaking, British cars are beautiful and lightweight, while Japanese cars look bulky, but strong and durable. At that time, there were also car dealers who leased bicycles in Xidan, Wangfujing, and the front door.

Bicycle models are divided into men’s cars and Kun cars. The men’s car has a beam. Kun car is a beam, so that women wear cheongsam and skirts to get on and off the car. There are two conventional “exquisite” of riding a bicycle: those who ride a male car should wear casual suits and cannot play tie. Riding Kun cars need to wear a long shirt, underneath the pants and leather shoes, and women pay attention to wearing short skirts.

During the Republic of China, there was also a “car player” in Beijing, that is, the bicycle was very beautiful. Some are equipped with a reflector on the handlebars, and some are paired with the handlebars with bright colors and long -handedlers. Some of the bells that are ranging to Chean, a bell handle, the bell is crispy and pleasant. At that time, there were mostly no street lights in the streets and alleys in Beijing, so many car owners grinded electric lights to bicycles. When it was dark at night, when the handle was handled, the electric roller rubbed the electric electricity with the wheel. The faster the ride, the brighter the lamp, which was a big “highlight” in the hutong.

In order to strengthen the management of bicycles, as early as the thirty -fourth year of Guangxu (1908), the Qing court awarded the “Illegal Police Law”, which stipulated: “The bicycle does not have a bell (bell) number (card) number (card). The fines of more than one day of five days, or a fine of less than five yuan. “The inspection, registration, and issuing number of the bicycle after the seventeenth year (1928) of the Republic The car parts should be complete, and the handbell should be placed on the car. The car is not allowed to multiply the two. At least one brake must be installed in the front and rear wheels. Traveling before dawn, a white light is hanging in front of the car, and a red reflector is equipped with a red reflector. “One of the duties of the patrol police at that time was to check the bicycle. If someone does not comply with the above regulations, it can be punished at any time after being discovered by the patrol officer.

For more than thirty years in the Republic of China, the number of bicycles in Beijing has continued to increase. According to the “Beijing Zhi · Municipal Volume · Road Traffic Management”: By 1948, there were 17,6970 bicycles in the city, becoming one of the important transportation tools for Beijing people.

自行车最早被称为“脚踏车”,上世纪曾是奢侈品

In the 1960s and 1970s, bicycles were the first of “three turns and one ring”

If you want to buy a bicycle with tickets, you must first “catch” in the unit

The so -called “three turns and one ring” is the “luxury goods” in family life in the 1960s and 1970s, that is, bicycles, watches, sewing machines and radios, and bicycles are the first. At that time, the bicycles were relatively rare. People talked about “flying pigeons”, “permanent”, and “phoenix”. They were not inferior to the “Jetta”, “Fukang”, and “Santana” in the early 1990s. Due to the planned economy, buying a bicycle must be used by tickets, especially those young people who want to get married. Bicycles have become one of the “three major pieces” necessary when they get married. Essence

According to the “Beijing Zhi · Comprehensive Volume · People’s Life”: Beginning in July 1959, the rival watch and bicycle adopted the supply method of collecting purchases. According to the source of the commercial department, according to the amount of employees of various organs, enterprises, and institutions, they will be issued to several tensor or bicycle purchase coupons from time to time (half a year or one year). Employees must be purchased at the designated store. Due to “more monks and less porridge”, many units adopt the “grabbing” method when allocating purchase coupons. At that time, if I caught a bicycle ticket, I was extremely excited, not as much as a motor car number today. In December 1964, watches and bicycles were open at the market price, but due to the tight market supply and high prices, it is not easy to buy a bicycle. In 1973, the purchase of bicycles was repaid again, and the bicycle ticket was still “hard to find.”

In the mid -1980s, with the development of the market economy, the production of bicycles changed dramatically. Not only did the number increased significantly, but its brand was no longer limited to the old three (flying pigeons, permanent, phoenix), various styles, various styles, and various styles, and various styles. Model bicycles meet the needs of consumers at different levels. In the mid -1990s, the number of bicycles in Beijing was the largest. In 1995, there were more than 8.31 million bicycles in the city in the city, ranking first in cities across the country.

The earliest production of Beijing

Bicycle is a “Torch”

When it comes to the “Yan brand” bicycle, maybe only those over 40 years of age know that it was the only brand bicycle produced in Beijing.

The earliest bicycle factory in Beijing was a bicycle factory established in Guoyangwai Street in Chaoyangmen in 1960. It was later renamed the Beijing Bicycle Factory and Beijing Bicycle General Plant. The earliest bicycle produced in Beijing was called “Torch”. After the 1960s, after Beijing’s “Yan brand” sewing machine became a brand -name product, the Beijing Light Industry Bureau renamed the bicycle produced by the Beijing Bicycle Factory as “Yan brand”. By the early 1980s, the annual production capacity of the “Yan brand” bicycle was less than 200,000 units. Because the quality, appearance, and durability could not catch up with “permanent”, “flying pigeons”, “Phoenix” and other brands, it did not become Beijing’s fist products. By the end of the 1980s, it stopped production, and then Beijing’s bicycle production enterprises have been closed one after another.

Although the “Yan brand” bicycle has only been produced for more than 20 years, many families in Beijing have rounded the “bicycle dream”, which brings convenience and happiness to people, leaving many unforgettable memories.

(Beijing Evening News)

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