Original author 丨 Meng Hui
Edge 丨 An Ye
眉如远山,双鬓似蝉翼一样轻透,一身衣裙也许是锦绣绚烂,也许是轻纱薄罗,但头上花翘微颤,流苏晃荡,配着同样悄荡不已的长佩、 Belt, ribbon brocade, lotus bag … This description is often impressive. In history books, a large number of ritual pursuit of “beauty” in ancient Chinese women. Wear gourds in the first month, lanterns in the Lantern Festival, wearing a flower basket in spring, wearing a rune bag in the Dragon Boat Festival … Wu Zetian’s one -day makeup changes, Lin Daiyu also mixed with Bodhimye’s clothing. Not to mention the talents of Wen Qing in the Tang Dynasty, the secrets of making incense in the Song Dynasty.
How can ancient women create a beautiful atmosphere and create a beautiful style? Meng Hui, a traditional Chinese material culture researcher, said that ancient Chinese women deeply understood, beauty, and charm not only came from the exquisite features and the shape of Qianli, but also used the clever makeup and gorgeous dresses, but also depended on a person. The wind, charm, and atmosphere that can be created, in order to use today’s popular concepts -gas field. Rhyme, gas field, how can it be formed? The main purpose of ancient women was that by implying, by applying the feelings of vision, smell, and hearing, the psychological marks of others. The most commendable is the hairstyle, such as the “time costume” that admires the strange and changeable “times” in the Tang Dynasty.
The following contents are selected from “Beauty Picture”, which have been modified compared to the original text. It has been authorized by the publisher.
“Beauty Picture”, Meng Hui, CITIC Publishing · Geofa, April 2021
Plum Blossom Makeup and Ceremony Little Gourd
The Taipei Palace Museum has a “Plum Blossom Lady Map” hidden in the Taipei Museum. I believe anyone will be moved by the wonderful plot on the picture: under the proud plum branch, a young woman stands out, holding a mirror to her face, and the other hand The index index pointers to her forehead with a five -petal plum flower shadow. Such an elegant picture may be difficult to think of the theme painting that is used in the first month of the first month of the first month.
This painting cleverly adopts the popular “plum makeup” story: in a certain “people day” -that is, the seventh day of the first month, the daughter of Emperor Shouyang of the Southern Dynasty, Princess Shouyang, nodded for a moment under the eaves of the chapter hall. A plum blossom fell, just to fall to the princess’s forehead. When the princess woke up, it was found that the falling flower actually pasted on her forehead and couldn’t wipe it. It was not washed away until three days later. The miracle caused the entire palace. The concubine palace girls felt that the princess with plum blossoms was really beautiful, so they cut them into small flowers with silk Luo, which formed a “plum makeup”.
Yuan Annal “Plum Blossom Lady Map” (partial), Taipei Palace Museum Collection
The author of this painting is an ancient professional painter who has not left his name. He uses a story very cleverly to present the fixed theme of the first month and February, “Spring Tour Ladies” and “Mei”. In addition, the story takes place on the seventh day of the first month, which is more specifically positioned in the “Spring Festival”. The painter also filled in two clusters of narcissus on the bank of the tree. Such a beautiful flower is a typical style of the Spring Festival, which also gives viewers “New Year”. There is also a small detail in the painting. It is difficult for modern audiences to notice, and it is not easy to understand that the creator’s original care of the ladies has a small gourd earrings hanging on the ear.
Small gourd -shaped earrings began to appear in the Yuan Dynasty, and they were widely popular. In the Ming Dynasty, a fixed custom is formed. From the 24th of the lunar month, women will wear various styles of small gourd earrings. In addition, no matter men and women, there must be a small on the crown or pupae. Gourd as a vertical decoration. The harmonious “Fulu” also symbolizes longevity and multi -child. Therefore, at the end of the year, everyone must wear jewelry made of small gourds, or wearing Huayi with the pattern with “Daji Gourd” to pin prayer Mood.
However, no matter how beautiful the small gourd is decorated, it can only be worn until the 13th day of the first month. Once the Lantern Festival comes, the earrings and pendants must be changed to all kinds of small lanterns. Therefore, for the Ming and Qing people, as soon as you see the small gourd earrings, you will naturally associate the days of resigning the old and welcoming the new.
Mingjin Jade Gourd -shaped earrings, Shanghai Museum Collection (photography: arterial shadow)
Shaoguang quietly shakes with Yu
The ancients loved flowers, one of the beautiful memories of the past time. However, not only flowers, but also the exquisite and small fruits will also constitute a woman’s border style. When the new fruit was cooked, he chose a pair of pipes and made a stepping pendant. In the Tang and Song dynasties, it was the affectionate atmosphere in the girlfriend.
When an ancient Chinese woman decorates the various headdresses on the clouds, Bo Yao is an absolutely indispensable starring star. The Eastern Han Dynasty Liu Xi’s “Refidence” was so defined: “Stepping, there is a bead on the top, and the step is shaking.” The actions kept shaking lightly, so they were named “Buy”. In the artistic performance and unearthed cultural relics, the flowers with beads and flowers are very frequent. These steps are colorful in shape, pattern combination, and even implications. Create highly free and unrestrained.
Jinhua tree -like Jinbu shakes the Liaoning Provincial Museum Collection, (photography: arterial shadow)
In Buyao, the most common shape is to embed a golden, jade, crystal phoenix, 鸾, geese and other birds in the head. The flowers and clouds of gold or jade are up at the end of the cricket. However, in ancient times, there was no restraint from the 广 不过 不过 不过 不过 不过 不过 不过 不过 不过 不过 不过 不过 can almost transform all the objects into the theme of the flowers.
Tang Yin Phoenix Bird -shaped, the Museum of Art Museum of Nalson Atekins, USA (photography: arterial shadow)
Among them, the flowers with weapons such as halberds,, and hammer, especially the lack of guts in our today’s people’s decoration design, such as “Biography of Children and Heroes”. , Tie with eight big Dongzhu, small pickers (that is, small beads) “. In addition, the tin stick used by the monks, the picking rods used in the honor, and even the dragon’s crutches and bamboo sticks turned into shows one by one, flying to the women’s black buns. Dingling in the Ming Dynasty even unearthed the turtles with golden casting and jade as a turtle -headed flower jewelry. Obviously, it means longevity. The turtle’s turtle shells are embedded in gems or ballpoints. Essence
As for the tassel under these various steps, it is more and more interesting, and it becomes a stage for people to enjoy their talents. Highlighting the excellent example is a tiring of the Qing Dynasty phoenix bird patterns in the current Capital Museum. Forgot to separate a pair of bird food tanks on both sides. Imagine that a woman’s side has always had a pocket parrot cage and shaken quietly. Whoever looks in his eyes is also to be teased.
The same charming is the past in Zhu Jiazheng’s “Palace Museum’s Retreatment”: his wife Zhao Zhongxuan has a female elder who was called “Five Master” by his subordinates, who is good at cultivating pocket gourds. Once I got a small gourd with only three -pointers, Zhao Zhongzheng came up with an idea, customized a bamboo -shaped jasper -shaped jasper in the jade workshop, and then fought a red gold shop with a gold shop. At the waist of the waist, the other end was hung on the jasper’s head, which formed a unique jade step with a small gourd pendant to vividly reproduce the poem of Su Dongpo’s “Wande Head hanging a gourd”. This record can be described as the elegance and luxury of the traditional “advanced customization”. Customers always let the jade workshops and gold shops create this only one, no duplicate first jewelry. The store will have a variety of ready -made themes to customers, such as flying geese as a flower, which means “the title of the Goose Pagoda”, which is suitable for women or women who take the imperial examinations. However, people with high cultural cultivation and artistic talents often design the patterns and meanings of their own steps, and then they are cleverly created by jewelry craftsmen.
In addition, women are not willing to rely entirely on craftsmen. They are good at women’s red and clever minds, so they often use various costs that are low -cost and suitable for operation, and they are string their own pendants, hanging on the puppets and crickets. If a woman prays to have children as soon as possible, she often hangs gold, jade, and even rhino horn, and 玳瑁 如果 如果 如果 1 on the head. It is said that this kind of money has a sign of “Yiyi”. In the Qing Dynasty, a red silk ball in the flower market in Beijing had a small bell in the connotation of the tea cup size. The women bought this red silk ball very often, and then hanged it on their heads. As a result, the red ball was dangling in the air, and the pink noodles became more and more gorgeous. At the same time, the little bell in the ball gently made a clear sound. When women came like that, there must be a charm.
Qingyuzi, Shanxi Folk Museum Collection (photography: arterial shadow)
Mo Qiong tree and cicada
In ancient China, in the makeup of women, Shuangxuan was one of the focus of great attention. The traditional concept believes that the light and delicate shape is enough to convey the sexy of women, evoked the heterogeneous attention and excitement emotions. Essence
Therefore, women are particularly deliberate to the shaping of Shuangxiang. In the long history, the shape of the black puppets is there as a result, and it is a variety of fantasies. If you carefully observe the relevant clues reserved in ancient art, you can actually add inspiration to today’s fashion design.
The well -known “Lie Girl Renzhi Tu” shows a strange false fake. It is a long one for the last paragraph, which is made of silk. Store on the shoulders. The wonderful thing is that this ribbon -style vertical bun uses the black black black on the outward side, but the inside side is presented as a completely different light color. It deliberately lets others see that this is an artificial material. With the movement of women, this pair of vertical buns will fluttering, so the light color on the inner side flipped from time to time, showing out, probably deliberately seeking such a sense of continuous changes in the game.
In the “Female History of Female”, this false bun turned into a long ray of black silk, drooping over the shoulders, and the last paragraph often forms a scoop. “Lien Women’s Map” and “Female History Map” are said to be the work of Gu Kaizhi, a big painter of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, but the original age of the draft was actually earlier and appeared in the Eastern Han Dynasty to the Wei and Jin Dynasties. Therefore, these two volumes of the great classics were presented. It was the hair fashion that continued to the Western Jin Dynasty during the Eastern Han Dynasty.
The Tang Dynasty advocated the strange “world costumes”. In the “Madam of the State Madam You Chun Tu” painted by Zhang Xuan, a kind of asymmetric style is displayed, that is, the half -moon -shaped cicada is combed on one side of the face, and the horns on the other side are only one short one. lock. However, the most strange thing is the period from the late Tang Dynasty to the fifth generation. From the funeral figurines unearthed in the tomb during this period, it can be seen that women are popular with a huge fake bun, as symmetrically open like a pair of bird wings. side. Some of these tops are also rolled backwards, reminiscent of the “flipping” mentioned in “Makeup”. It is difficult to guess how much such a fake bun is made of materials. From this kind of bird -style fake buns, a “cluster” is developed, which is to reduce this kind of false bun, but to make two or three layers, such as the mountains and the stacked on both sides of the forehead, in the five generations of the five generations of Quyang, Hebei, Hebei On the relief and painting surface of the straight tomb, you can clearly observe the specific state of such a “cluster”.
(Chuan) Tang Zhangxuan’s “Madam of Madam of the State” details, Liaoning Provincial Museum Collection
However, in the long history of Chinese women’s fashion, the most vitality style is undoubtedly cicada, and it will appear again after a while, and it will be popular for a while. According to legend, the cicada was initially invented by a concubine Mo Qiong tree in the Three Kingdoms era. The name is “cicada”. As the name suggests, the cicada is close to the visual effect of the cicada wings. On the one hand, like stretching bird’s wings, Zhang Cheng has a half -piece light cloud on both sides of the face. After passing the shadow, you can vaguely see the subsequent scenery. Because of its lightness, it is also known as “clouds”, “fog”, “light”, “thin and appropriate” and so on.
Qing Anonymous’s “Lady Map” part, the Central Academy of Fine Arts College
In fact, the times are different, and the style of cicadas has also changed. The middle Tang cicada style reflected in Zhang Xuan’s “Character” is oval in the end of the drooping.
The cicada buns in the Ming and Qing dynasties were even more exaggerated. It was almost triangle and opened obliquely. It was really like the wings raised when the birds took off. For this kind of bun, there was a very vivid name, called “Picking the Erotic Picking Picking Picking Picking Picking Picking Picking Picks “”.
To comb into the shape of the cicada and make it, of course, it must be gel. Ancient women used the wisdom of life and found a variety of natural materials that can be made from nature. Unfortunately, only sporadic clues recorded in the documents. For example, you can add white cricket to the head oil or water for a long time, so that the oil or water is sticky. In addition, it is explained that the mulberry leaves have been pounded out of the juice in the palace, and the spices are added to sort out the hair.
However, in the Ming Dynasty, the most popular method was to use antlers to make glue. The antlers are actually a kind of seaweed, full of glue, soak it into hot water for a while, and can melt into sticky glue. Therefore, at the time, shops or coils that sell women’s dressing products will have antlers. After women buy it, they will be immersed in hot water to make it easy to produce glue. When combing hair, the small brush “pupa” is dipped in the antlers and brushes on the hair, and brushed it on the hair: “Four copper coins buy a red -headed rope and a snail, and Rao Xing’s antlers to brush the sink around . “(The Wu Dishan Song” Burning incense Mother “in the Ming Dynasty) arrived in the Qing Dynasty, and generally replaced the antlers with” shaving “. The so -called shaving refers to the wooden strips planted by the elm or tung wood, and it is also supplied by a shop or a cargo Lang that sells women’s supplies. Women buy shavings and soak them by themselves. “Collar water”.
Whether it is cicada or other buns, women like to paste gold foil or colorful silk and paper -cut slices on them, making the double buns more noticeable. It is said that during the Northern Wei Dynasty, Gao Yang Wang Yuanyong’s pet Ji Yanzi was “dot with gold foil. He also “dragged a nest of Hangzhou, Cuiyunzi, showing four buns, sticking to flying gold” (twenty -seventh time). In the Song people’s notes, the form of “supporting Jinfeng” during the Northern Song Dynasty Xuanhe was popular; the “Palace Words” in Ningxian Wang Zhu Quan in the Ming Dynasty and the makeup style in the court at that time, there were also clouds “laughing stickers and double flying swallows”. It can be seen that the flowers attached to the 花 will make the image of phoenix and swallows. It is light and exquisite, which is enough to make the wipes that are described to attract attention.
With the beginning of modern life, Chinese women have changed their images in the image shape. The disappearance of the doubles is a very prominent phenomenon.In fact, East Asian women’s eyebrows are relatively thin, and shaping a pair of outlines and fantasy -shaped black wipest on both sides of the cheeks will make others feel that the face of the woman who sees on the face is even more eye -catching, which is even more attractive to attractive.Involuntarily strengthened attention.Therefore, the ancients believed that women’s twin buns were one of the most powerful symbols of sexy, and they deserve their own attention.
Author 丨 Meng Hui
Edge 丨 An Ye
Edit 丨 Gong Zhaohua
School pair 丨 Lu Qian