In the tea shop in Chengdu, with time, life and home country
Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, November 26th. On November 26, “Xinhua Daily Telecom” published a report entitled “Chengdu Tea Shop, with time, life and home country”.
In a tea table, a bowl of “three flowers”, under the warm sun in winter, the tea shop on the banks of the Chengdu River, under the shade, the park, and the streets of the streets greeted the popularity of recovery after the epidemic.
On November 23, after the new crown pneumonia’s epidemic subsided, Chengdu Chen Jincha’s shop was full of people who were drinking tea and leisure. Xinhua News Agency reporter Shen Bohan Photo
Tea shop is the name of the teahouse in Chengdu. Since the end of the Qing Dynasty, “sitting in a tea shop” has become a long way of life in Chengdu. In the long years, it is like an old friend who quietly watched in the streets and alleys, accompanied by the elderly and death, witnessing the vicissitudes of the world.
One city resident half tea guest
One day in October 1949, a young man from Sweden sat in a tea shop on Chunxi Road, Chengdu, telling him about his vision to an old -fashioned steel wire recording machine. Curious people surrounded him and watched this mad foreigner talking to a machine.
His Chinese name is Ma Yueran. In August 1948, after studying ancient Chinese for two years, he crossed the ocean to Sichuan. In the following two years, he went around to investigate Sichuan dialects, laying a solid foundation for the completion of the works on western dialects in China in the future. He also met a beautiful Chengdu girl and made a good story that crossed the national borders. Many years later, he became one of the 18 lifelong judges of the Swedish Academy and the Nobel Prize in Literature. He was the only sinologist who was well versed in Chinese culture and proficient in Chinese.
Ma Yueran lived in Sichuan in the late 1940s, with a population of 500,000 in Chengdu and 598 tea shops. The folk saying: “One city residents and a half -tea guest.” The ubiquitous tea shop was a window that he captured the rhythm of dialects and observed the life of the city.
On November 23, the tiger stove in Guanyin Pavilion’s old teahouse in Pengzhen, Shuangliu District, Chengdu was burning boiling water. Xinhua News Agency reporter Shen Bohan Photo
72 years later, with the help of Wang Di, director of the Department of History of the University of Macau, Xinhua Daily Telecommunications reporters obtained this sound file from the Swedish National Radio. Through the distant space -time, the fireworks in the tea shop rushed to face–
“This is a large house, about 50 meters long and 20 meters wide. I estimate that there are about 400 guests … Chinese teahouses are a very good facility: where you can chat, talk about politics, or do business. You can haircuts, shave, and even sit on the seat for people to get your ears … The children who sell things shuttle in the teahouse, they sell peanuts, fried nuts, melon seeds … Fasteners … but there are also several people wearing suits … “In addition to Ma Yueran’s voice, the people in the tea shop are full of sound, and the car is full of car.
Tea shop in Chengdu in the 1940s. Xinhua News Agency
Wang Di quoted this record in the book “Tea House: Public Life and Micro World 1900-1950”. The historian born in Chengdu has been committed to “writing history for the people” from a micro perspective. In his research, in the first half of the 20th century, there are almost no other institutions that are closely related to people’s daily social life like teahouses. In China, no city has a large number of teahouses like Chengdu. In his opinion, teahouses are the cells of society, which can reflect the complexity and change of society; it is also a window that can observe the rich and colorful world through it.
The importance of teahouses to Chengdu people, from the “Rongxing Miscellaneous Tea House” written by writer Zhang Henshui, can be seen: “Any cross street entrance in Peiping, there must be an oil and salt grocery shop (both also Restaurant), a grain shop, a coal shop. This is not the case in Chengdu. It is a large teahouse that replaces everything. “,”
In 2002, tea guests drank tea in Jinlun Town, Guanghan City, Sichuan Province. Xinhua News Agency (Photo by Chen Jin)
However, the Chengdu people “sitting in the tea shop” are not all like their idlers. What do they do? In the novel “Before the Storm”, Li Yiren showed readers the three major functions of Chengdu tea shop during the Republic of China -the market, the venues of rally evaluation, and the living room or lounge of people in the middle of the industry. People open water, Chinese medicine, and stew soup in the tea shop. Not only can Qingyin, Zhuqin, Sichuan opera, and book evaluation can find the stage in the tea shop, cotton yarn, cloth, medicinal materials, grain and oil can also be made here for sale. The “Pok Organization of Sichuan” (Sichuan’s Folk Secrets) has a dock and a tea array in the tea shop (a kind of hidden language of the rivers and lakes). With disputes and contradictions, invited a person to “eat tea” (the two parties who had disputes to the teahouse to ask the public to judge right and wrong), breaking right and wrong.
In 1989, people “eat tea” in a tea shop in Xinkai Street, Chengdu to mediate contradictions. Xinhua News Agency (Photo by Chen Jin)
One -party tea shop not only provides a place for social, entertainment, and transactions for the Sanjiao and Nine Streams, but also provides a long -lasting livelihood for hawkers such as watercare, dignitaries, drama classes, and barberrs. In Chengdu in the first half of the 20th century, it “arranged” almost all public life of the public and became a unique scenery.
On June 30, a tea guest enjoys the “Ear” service while drinking tea in the Heming Tea Club in Chengdu. Xinhua News Agency reporter Shen Bohan Photo
The big era in the small tea shop
When the market is in the fragrance of tea, the wind of the times is also staged in the tea shop.
Today’s Chengdu People’s Park, a century -old tea shop in the green shade of the garden -Heming Tea Society. The black lacquer pillars are engraved with couplets: “The four are empty, and the slices are not distinguished by you; the two ends are the road, eat a west and the west.”
On June 30, people drinking tea and leisure in the Heming Tea Club in Chengdu People’s Park. Xinhua News Agency reporter Shen Bohan Photo
Anyone and leisure are the first impression of many foreigners in Sichuan. However, maybe people do not know that in the face of national danger, the Sichuan people who love to sit in the tea shop have never “diluted” (dragged water).
In the “Report of Comrade Sichuan Baolu Society” in 1911, such a story is recorded: Zizhou (now the capital) young man Shi Mougang has been engaged for more than a month, and he does not know the text. One day he heard people read the report of Comrade Sichuan Baolu in the tea shop. He cried his chest and cried: “The current affairs are so critical, and the country is in front of him. What kind of mother -in -law is you asking?
On May 9, 1911, in order to borrow from the banks of the United States, Britain, France, and Germany, the Qing government announced that the Sichuan -Han, Han and Han Railway, which were commercially handled by the Sichuan, Hunan, Hubei, and Guangdong provinces. Road trend. In June, Chengdu established the “Sichuan Baolu Society”, calling on the people of all Sichuan to “abolish the road” and organize the masses to petition to the Governor’s Department. On September 7, Sichuan Governor Zhao Erfeng ordered the representative of the Comrade Baolu Club, and then ordered the shot to suppress the crowds who gathered at the Governor’s Office. They killed 32 people on the spot, and then slaughtered the masses at the intersections of Chengdu, creating a “” Chengdu Blood Case “. After the news came out, the people’s armed resistance was aroused. The huge “road protection movement” became the fuse of the 1911 Revolution, sounding the funeral clock of the Qing Dynasty. Today, the “Destiny Monument to Bao Road in Xinhai Autumn” stands quietly hundreds of meters away from the Heming Tea Club.
Tea shop is not only a folk “news agency” that spreads news, but also a big stage for promoting new ideas. In Sichuan, the tea shop is almost the birthplace of all folk performances, and the garden is derived from the tea shop. Modern new culture has sprouted and developed in Sichuan in the late Qing Dynasty. From time to time, the tea shop staged a new drama pursuing personality liberation and full of democratic thought. In the 1930s, Chengdu Yuelai Tea Garden brought a Sichuan opera “Fashion Opera” called “Black Slave Righteous Heroes” to the stage. There is a well -known name of this play- “Uncle Tom’s House”. In the “slow” era of information transmitting, the stories of black slaves on the other side of the ocean were spreading in the streets of a city in a city in southwestern China.
In 1992, tea guests listened to the evaluation of the Yuelai Tea Garden in Chengdu. Xinhua News Agency (Photo by Chen Jin)
On the stage, Sichuan opera, Qingyin, Zhuqin, and book reviews you sing. Under the stage, the sorrow and joy of the world, the national enemy hate rolling in the tea soup.
Today, the ancient town of Qingshen County, Meishan City, a quiet alley is located in the old tea shop Kuilongchang. The old man who ate tea said that the tea shop was a gathering place for the local anti -Japanese Sichuan army. Many of them did not return to their hometown after leaving. During the Anti -Japanese War, more than 3.5 million strong men went out of Sichuan, vowed to kill the enemy, 646,000 casualties and disappearances.
During the war of liberation, the dark currents of revolution were also surged in the tea shop.
On the streets of Chengdu in 1948, two young people hurried forward among the crowd. The older Gao Shou’e was a underground party member. He whispered that Yu Jibin, 20, had approved him as a reserve party member. “There was no red flag when he joined the party, facing a tea table. Gao Shou’e led me to swear. He read a vow in a low voice. The memory of many things has been blurred, but when talking about this past, there is light in the eyes.
Yu Jibin when he was young. Xinhua News Agency
In the hustle and bustle of the sound, there were countless thrilling of tea paving, and witnessed countless sadness and joy.
Today’s Chengdu Shuangliu Wipe Ear Old Street is located on an old house. It was a tea shop 75 years ago. The owner of the tea shop Xu Maosen is a “robe brother”. Mingli does business with his nephew, secretly providing accommodation for underground party members to help transfer weapons. In this tea shop, Uncle Xu Maosen assisted underground party members to launch local progressive youths to set up the “New Democratic Comrades” and “Farmers Course”, and also founded the underground publication “Torch”. On the eve of the Mid -Autumn Festival in 1949, the contact station was exposed because the traitor betrayed. When the Kuomintang military police arrested the underground party members, they also took away Uncle Xu Mao Sen. In prison, Xu Maosen was tortured and still encouraged his nephew to “improper soft bones, that is, he could not betray friends.” In the middle of the night on December 7, 1949, with more than 30 revolutionary volunteers, they were bravely righteous on the shores of the 12th bridge of Chengdu.
On July 7, Xu Maosen’s former residence on the old street in Shuangliu District, Chengdu. Xinhua News Agency reporter Shen Bohan Photo
Twenty days later, Chengdu liberated.
Born in the house, live in a tea shop
Time, after dozens of years of wind and rain, the tea fragrance is still. It is not difficult to find through Wang Di’s research that although the tea shop in Chengdu has been silent for many years, it has ushered in vitality and flourishing after the reform and opening up.
In the 1980s, Chengdu’s most famous production materials trading market was the “Friday Tea Club” in the Tea Garden of Northern Park. In the first three quarters of 1987, the turnover at the tea party exceeded 200 million yuan. By the 1990s, the organizer also moved the computer into the tea garden to facilitate the search and seller to search for information.
In the 1990s, the Chengdu City North Park Materials Fair was held in the teahouse of the park. The organizer set up a computer to provide inquiry services to the people participating in the trading conference. Xinhua News Agency reporter Xiong Ruqing Photo
Parents who are worried about their children’s marriage are married in the tea shop. The businessmen who “go to the sea” are talking about business in the tea shop. Editor -in -chief finds inspiration and choice questions in the tea shop … The sip of the sound is still a familiar rural voice.
Today, in the cities in cafes, milk tea shops, and cinema, the tea shop has long changed from the “only” of public life to “one”, but the emotions from generation to generations are still permeated in the tea fragrance.
Born in 1931, Poet Ruisha River worked in the Sichuan Provincial Literary Federation when he was young. He always went to Juxian Tea Club near the unit every night to open the water and take it back to make strong tea to stay up late. In the essay collection of “Old Chengdu · Furong Autumn Dream”, the poets wrote down those far -reaching tea shops: Mixiang Pavilion, Linjiang Pavilion, Guangchun Pavilion, Huahua Tea Hall, Yinxiao, Liangyuan, Sanyi Gong … Now these tea shops have long been annihilated in the years. The poets also drove to the west in 2019, but when they entered the corner and alley of Chengdu, they could still meet with a small tea shop. The old man who reads seemed to be the legacy.
Chen Jin tea shop surrounded by Tiexiang Temple of Chengdu High -tech Zone still strives to retain the appearance of the old tea shop -bamboo chairs, bowls, and open -air dams. “The rest of my life is very long, what is panicked”, and the words standing next to the open -air teahouse are the “spirit of tea shops” that the owner wants to pass on people.
On November 23, Chengdu Chen Jincha’s shop was filled with people who came to drink tea to drink tea and leisure. Xinhua News Agency reporter Shen Bohan Photo
Chen Jin is an old tea guest and is also a photographer who has shot tea shop for more than 30 years. A tea shop in Wenjiang Shou’an Town once, he encountered a lifelong unforgettable thing: the tea shop was lively in the tea shop that day, and suddenly there was a sound of suona. I saw the funeral team blowing away. The team came to the door of the tea shop and suddenly stopped. Tang Yan moved out of the table and chair in the middle of the street, and then made a cup of hot tea. At this time, the filial sons with the spirit card fell kneeling in front of the tea table. Chen Jin immediately understood that this was the last bowl of tea in the Yangshi of Xiaoshi’s grandson to “drink” the last bowl of tea.
In 2002, in front of a tea shop door in Shou’an Town, Wenjiang District, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, the people who were buried with the lingering cards kneeled in front of the tea table, serving the last cup of tea for the old tea guest. Xinhua News Agency (Photo by Chen Jin)
Chengdu Shuangliu Pengzhen, with a history of more than 100 years of history, still retains the appearance of Chengdu old tea shop in Zhang Henshui’s pen -not very tall eaves, not so white clip walls, not very thick pillars, if so, if so, if so, if so, if so, if so In the evening, even more light lights, short black wooden tables, large yellow old bamboo chairs …
On November 23, people drank tea, playing cards, chatting, and leisure in Guanyin Pavilion Old Tea House, Pengzhen, Shuangliu District, Chengdu. Xinhua News Agency reporter Shen Bohan Photo
Tea guests are old and young. Whether they are poor, they can find their own world in the tea shop. In the eyes of the boss Li Qiang, everyone is equal in front of a bowl of tea.
At more than 4 am every day, Li Qiang began to burn the water, ready to welcome the old buddies who reported here every day. Old tea guests drink tea for 1 yuan, and the price remains unchanged for many years. Although few, the owner and the tea guests are at ease. Tourists drink 10 yuan and take 10 yuan, and they will also willingly sit in the inside, without disturbing old tea guests to talk about it.
On November 23, in the old teahouse of Guanyin Pavilion, Pengzhen, Shuangliu District, Chengdu, the boss Li Qiang (second from the right) added water to the tea guests. Xinhua News Agency reporter Shen Bohan Photo
Many of the tea guests “live” here for a lifetime. Under the new crown pneumonia’s epidemic in 2020, the tea shop has closed the door for the first time in history. The monitoring at the door lived at 4:19 in the first month of the first month. Uncle Zhong, 95, had nowhere to drink morning tea. The figure.
On November 23, Luo Chaorong, a 74 -year -old tea guest, drank tea in the old teahouse of Guanyin Pavilion, Pengzhen, Shuangliu District, Chengdu. Xinhua News Agency reporter Shen Bohan Photo
The tea shop has precipitated the vicissitudes of the years, and it has gathered the temperature.
There is a dignified Lanyuan Tea Society where Chen Jin often goes to the Lanyuan Tea Club, and people call him “glasses”. After more than ten years, he remembers which place for tea guests to sit, what tea he loves to drink, and who loves to sit with a table, and never make mistakes. Later, the city was transformed. Many years later, Chen Jin found the “glasses” of a waiter in a small hotel in the northern suburbs. Later, the hotel was also demolished. Chen Jin heard that the gatekeeper of the unit said that “glasses” came to him when he went out. In the era of no mobile phone, the two missed it and there was no news. Many years have passed, and this light and long friendship has been warming Chen Jin. “That’s a unique tenderness between Tangyu and Tea Casters,” he said.
The “glasses” (middle) of the Lanyuan Tea Club adds water to the tea guests. Xinhua News Agency (Photo by Chen Jin)
The native time is full of time, and life is full of joy and sorrow. At that time, the children sitting on the knees of adults and tea soup with tea cover were already old people. In the rapid development of cities, only a few old tea shops are faintly as childhood. However, it is not difficult to find in the city of Li Yiren’s old residence, next to the Wangjiang floor of the Jinjiang River, the flowers in the flowers near the Huahua Creek, and the tree shade of the Manjushri Academy … The tenacious vitality of the tea shop is still in full swing.
Calculated from the end of the Qing Dynasty, the tea shop in Chengdu has been flourishing for more than 100 years. It is born on the banks of the river and naturally grows in the bone blood of the city. The meticulousness, calmness and calmness of the kingdom of Tianfu for thousands of years, and through it, the generations of generations are infiltrated by generations.
At the moment of sitting on a bamboo chair, people temporarily put down the disturbances outside the tea shop. Ren this little tea bowl, like a leaf -flat boat, took them from the river that lived from this life, watching the mountains and rivers on both sides of the strait, and the birds who couldn’t help but moved forward comfortably, stable, and determined.