Ancient Gao Shitu and its derivative -the in -depth interpretation of the “Forest Forest” exhibition of the Forbidden City (below)

Yang Danxia

古代高士图及其衍变——故宫“林下风雅”展之深度解读(下)

“Forest and elegant -the Palace Museum’s Tibetan Painting Special Exhibition (Phase II)” is exhibiting outside the Palace Museum. This exhibition is mainly presented in ancient Chinese Gao Shitu, which is divided into “avoiding the world” and “Yanju Youxing”. Two units. In ancient Chinese figure paintings, “Gao Shitu” was the painting theme that was most favored and best reflected in his life ideals and sentiments. Throughout the history of painting since Jin and Tang, “Gao Shitu” cannot be underestimated in the number, historical status and artistic influence.

“Surging News · Ancient Art” special issue of the exhibition and the research librarian of the Palace Museum, Yang Danxia, ​​studied the study of Gao Shitu, and published it. This is the next part.

Northern Song Zhao Yan (Chuan) Listening to Qin Map (partial)

Third, the two Song dynasties to drop the flow of “Gao Shitu”

古代高士图及其衍变——故宫“林下风雅”展之深度解读(下)

The figure paintings of the Song Dynasty undertake the innovation of the five generations and ten kingdoms in painting language and image, and the diversity of famous masters. It has further developed, reaching a new peak, manifested as the characteristics of the era of famous masters, distinctive personality, and attention. Entering the Yuan Dynasty, due to the factors of political and national contradictions, coupled with the prosperity of “literati painting” and quickly occupying the leading position of the art world, the Han scholars at that time had a empty and indifferent attitude towards life, and even painted with figure paintings. It is also a sense of abandonment of “Fang Jin Painters don’t want to paint personnel”. Therefore, although the character painting world has an individual famous master master, it has been greatly declining from the Song Dynasty as a whole. In the early years of the Ming Dynasty, the “courtyard body” and “Zhejiang faction” of the two Song Dynasty were the style of Gang Jiana and the Sui and Song regions. The influence of landscapes and figure paintings was extended to the beginning of the Qing Dynasty. The interaction between the stories of the late Ming characters and the prints produced the “deformationist” style of “deformationism” represented by Chen Hongzhang and others. This kind of ancient and new appearance has always affected the “sea school” and even modern times in the late Qing Dynasty.

Specifically, the hidden theme of “Gao Shitu” is inherently formed by its connotation and the inherent model of early painting. Its creative techniques and expression styles are not only synchronized with the development and evolution of figure paintings of previous generations, but also have their own characteristics and trends. Overall, according to the narrow sense of “hidden” and “Gao Shi” standards, the Song Dynasty and later generations, the number of creators of such subjects, the number of handed down works, and the scope of the subject performance objects are all declining than before. The specific manifestation is the following aspects:

1. The decline of the creation of hidden theme “Gao Shitu”

It can be seen through the sorting of the literature of the Song Dynasty figure painting and the “Xuanhe Painting Book”, which can be seen that although the character painting at this time is unprecedented in expressing real life, the hidden theme in the “Gao Shitu” is engaged in the creation of the painter. The number of works and the scope of the subject matter is not as good as the previous generation.

古代高士图及其衍变——故宫“林下风雅”展之深度解读(下)

Take the Northern Song Dynasty as an example. During the Zhenzong period of the Northern Song Dynasty, Guo Ruoxu’s “Pictures Seeing Wen Zhi” recorded “the total of 158 people in the seventy years of Xining from the nine years of the Jianlong of the Holy Dynasty, and the doctor of the prince Yiren Yi Zhenzheng. “People”, there are fifty -three people, but their works are mostly Buddhist figures, Tian family figures, and temple viewing murals. They only distinguish the topic, and those who should be a number of themes are found in several pieces. “Xuanhe Painting Book” records the “Song” figure painter and works in the seventh volume, but there are two points worth noting: that is, the book contains the five generations and ten kingdoms such as Zhou Wenjia, Gu Yanzhong, etc. Success, Guo Xi, Wang Yan and others, although the names of the painting seem to be the subject of Gao Shi, such as Li Cheng’s “Fisherman’s Father’s Father” and Guo Xi’s “Visit the Dai Tu”, their authors and works are in the book. It is not classified as “landscapes”, but the painting problem is related to the birth of the country. Another Sun Keyuan, although there are three themes of “Gao Shitu”, but “Xuanhe Painting Book” is unknown about his life, saying “I don’t know who”, maybe this person is just a folk painter. Li Gonglin, who really became famous in the Northern Song Dynasty, has influenced and created the theme of “Gao Shitu” in the history of painting. Deng Chun’s “Painting Ji” records famous artists and works of the Northern Song Dynasty to the beginning of the Southern Song Dynasty. There are only two sixty pieces of “unnamed hearts” contained in “unity”, only two pieces of Gao Shi’s theme, namely “Tai Chang Shaoqing He Qizi Yingjia” collected Zhang Nanben’s “Survey of Books” and “Shu Seng Zhiyong Fang” at the end of the Tang Dynasty. The Northern Song Dynasty Hui Chong’s “Snow Snow”. Among them, the “Survey Map” strictly speaking, it cannot be regarded as a hidden theme. Although these documents may not be able to reflect the comprehensive situation at that time, they can also see the “Gao Shitu” of the theme of the hidden relaxation. In other themes in the character painting before the south of the Song Dynasty, their creatives generally showed a downward trend.

In addition, landscape paintings have been born and developed by the five generations and ten kingdoms. By the Song Dynasty, the “Song Ren Personalized” matured and complete, making landscape painting further and deeper, and achieved brilliant achievements. The status of the artist was gradually raised. However, this prosperity provides new machines and challenges to the “Gao Shitu” of character paintings, especially hidden themes. On the one hand, the strengthening of literati consciousness and its psychological reprimand of “craftsman paintings”, coupled with the high requirements of character shapes, storylines, etc., the painters need to have a well -trained “boy skills” and other factors. In addition to a small number of professional painters specializing in this, most literati painters retreated and gradually faded out of the special creations of character painting; on the other hand, Xie Lingyun, Tao Qian to Wang Wei and others took the main purpose of “returning” landscapes and pastorals. Poetry is popular. In terms of literary creation, the theme of hidden literature has been further expanded, and poetry works that entrust the interesting life of hidden life have increased, which largely promotes the combination of landscape painting and literature. Mountain forest scenery has become the most important feature of Chinese painting. Wei Xian and Dong Yuan of the Tang and Five Dynasties and Ten Dynasties gradually became a new form of the new form of the stories of the hidden stories through landscape works. Landscape figure paintings have become a large number of “high -scholars”, “dwelling pictures” and “high hidden maps” that have become famous after Yuan. Symbolic embellishment and symbols in landscape painting.

2. The continuation and change of traditional theme content

From the paintings of the character paintings of the two Song Dynasty and the recording of the literature at the time, it can be seen that some traditional “Gao Shizu” themes such as “Bamboo Forest Seven Sages”, “Shangshan Sihao Map”, “Huichang Nine Old Maps” were retained, and were Yuan In the future, the characters and painters of previous generations have been continuously continued and interpreted. Among them, the theme of “Si Hao” and “Nine Old”, which shows the thoughts of Shiyin and the thoughts, has been further developed. Not only does the number of works on this topic increase, but also the new subjects played by the topic, such as the successor of the “still teeth” meeting ” “Ying Yinghui”. In fact, as early as the Tang Dynasty, Bai Juyi’s “Shangya Club” spread to Goryeo and Japan, which attracted the local nobles and senior officials. In the Northern Song Dynasty, under the dual factors of Jingyang Baijuyi and politically excluded, the “different political opinions” Wen Yanbo and Fuzhang in the tide of Wang Anshi during the Yuanfeng period had many crowns and so on. Thirteen of them imitated the “still teeth party” as “Ying Yinghui”, and made the image of the gathering of the painter Zheng Yan in the white house of Pumin Temple. In addition, the Song Renmu’s style also created the “Luoshe Ying Ying Map” that continued “Huichang Jiu Lao Map”, which promoted the sense of mission of the gardens of these scholars and senior officials. In fact, this kind of gathering has exceeded the limitations of the “Nine Old Associations” in the spiritual core, and it means the criticism of the reform of the reform and the inferiority of its own influence, which implies the meaning of a small political group that recognizes each other in the governance concept. This is no wonder that Song Shenzong and Wang Anshi and other “new legalists” were heard, and they heard that these people’s gatherings were piercing. Therefore, the “Yingyinghui” is not just a literati who pins their ideals of the “Nine Old Pictures” to explain the ideals of Bai’s poetry through drawing the “Nine Old Maps”. Dissatisfaction and loss, which just reflects the psychological connotation of scholars since the Song Dynasty.

Song Anonymous Huichang Jiu Lao Tu (partial)

The Song people’s “Huichang Nine Old Maps” and “Luo She Yingying Map” founded a model for the same type of themes of later generations. With the expansion and generalization of the meaning of “Gao Shi”, it gradually overlapped with the literati themes. Re -creation, this kind of subject matter has evolved from the creation of officials and self -advertising by the officials themselves, and has evolved to the mid -Qing Dynasty to become the main purpose of respecting the old Jingxian and praising the prosperous world. Picture “and political propaganda. Under the instructions of Emperor Qianlong, various types of artworks such as “Xiangshan Nine Old Maps” painted “Xiangshan Nine Old Maps”, “Jiu Lao Cai Zhi Tu”, and the green jade carving “Huichang Nine Old Pictures “Mountain Zi and Eggnters and Monument” Xiangshan Nine Olds “are emerging endlessly, and it also reflects the tendency of traditional hidden stories from one aspect.

Southern Song Dynasty Bamboo Forest Dial Ruan Tu Page

In contrast, the “Bamboo Forest Seven Sages”, which is also a “portrait”, is also a work that presents the birth and pride of the East Jinshi, and has decreased in the records and existence works. Although there are individual fan painting paintings The relics such as the Song people “Bamboo Forest Dial Ruan Tu”, but in general, the “Seven Sages” story includes some of the Gao Shi, such as Bi Zhuo, Ruan Fu, and Ma Rong, which were repeatedly depicted in the early “Gao Shitu”. It appeared, and represented the “Gao Shi” Yiwen story painting with the popularity and elegance of the Wei and Jin dynasties with “Zi Xun Visit the Dai Tu” and “Fan of the Book of Xizhi”. This is probably related to the changing attitude of the scholars on the “Seven Sages”. After all, the ten -year cold window of the scholars is the ultimate ideal is to enter the ambition. From the discussion of the following people, it is not difficult to see that the Middle Ages’ attitudes to the “hidden” and the “seven sages” attitude: “The only seven sages are sometimes named, and the Sima Fang Fang will look at it to make it in the country, so that it can supplement it. Supplemented, otherwise, the gentleman’s potentially harm also has its own way. What do you kill? “

After the Song Dynasty, the trend of literati Ya Wen’s funny things became more and more prominent, and the choice of painters was even greater, such as “Lanting Xiu Map” depicting the “Lanting Xiu Map” of the Eastern Jin Dynasty. “,” Xi Yuan Yaji Maps “, showing Su Shi, Wang Yan, Li Gonglin and others, the” Yushan Yaji Map “or” Yushan Viewing Painting “of Gu Aying, Yang Weizheng, Huang Gongwang and others, and “The Graphic of the Cage”, “The Right Army Title Fan Map”, “Dunyi Love Lotus Map”, “Dongpo Pin ancient Map”, “Dongpo Title Bamboo Map”, etc., are endless. In this way, even the traditional paintings created by some famous artists are less noticeable in such a complicated and prosperous situation.

Ming Duyu Dongpo Titles Bamboo Caption (Partial)

3. New subject matter and new technique

The combination of figure painting and landscape paintings has made literati since the Tang and Song dynasties often sing the atmosphere of the music with the poem of “fisherman” and transform into a image of image. Dong Qichang once said the origin and meaning of “Fisherman’s Father’s Picture”: “The famous hands of the Song Dynasty, such as Ji Ran, Li, and Fan Zhugong, all have fishing pictures. Zhihe is painting. This Tang Dynasty is victorious. Later generations are covered, and they often mean fishing vocal ears. There are many in the season. The reason, such as Zhang Zhihe’s image of “oblique wind and drizzle” in Yaju with Yan Zhenqing, also described the “Fisherman’s Picture”. “poetry. The living areas of the “Four of the Yuan Dynasty” are all south of the river, so they are really good at depicting familiar scenes. However, as mentioned earlier, the “Fisherman’s Map” has created history, Shi Daoshuo, Han Yan, Wei Xian and others since the Wei and Jin Dynasties. Qu Yuan “Fisherman”. In Qu Yuan’s works, a “fishing hidden” image that moves with time and is open -minded is unyielding with his own virginity, and strives to fight for a sharp contrast. Later generations have evolved the “fisherman” into a typical typical typical theme of “Gao Shitu”. Image.

Most of the famous artists of the Song Dynasty have the theme of “Fisherman’s Father”, such as Li Cheng’s “Fisherman’s Father”, Xu Daoning’s “Fisherman’s Father”, Li Tang’s “Qingxi Fishing Hidden Map” and “Songhu Fishing Hidden Map” and so on. It can be seen that the creation of “Fisherman’s Father” has shifted from early figure painting to landscape character painting mainly in landscapes. Wu Zhen, one of the “Four People” at the end of the Yuan Dynasty, is also famous for its “Fisherman’s Map”. He uses this theme to express the hidden thoughts of “no self -esteem”, and entrusts the “fishing bass without fishing”. Anti -Jane’s lonely, Xiao Ao Lake’s chest.

In addition, the “Gao Shitu”, which is not recorded in the history of early painting, has become a new theme of hidden aquatic themes at this time. This has significant symbolic significance for the topic of “Gao Shitu” in the Song Dynasty and later generations. Because of Tao Qian’s hike, he is also in line with the ideas of Chinese traditional culture in his heart and actively entering the WTO. The concepts of the scholars in all ages adhering to the concept of “Da Zeng and the world, and the poor are alone”. When the political is dull, the social turmoil, or the resignation of the official because of the disappointment, or to avoid the life of the world, Tao Qian is just one of them. Essence His solution is completely rejected in the “Hou Han Book of Gao Shi Biography”, and the “hidden” of Yan Hui, Nest Father, Xu You, etc. of the princes is not the same as the “first heart” and form. The Ming Zhe subtly represented by the “Huichang Nine Old” and “Shangshan Sihao”, which runs away or moves. It is not similar to the time. The time and the trend of the trend. Even so, the page does not prevent him from becoming an idol that has become an idol that “does not have poverty and not to be rich in wealth” for thousands of years.

The most famous painter who depicts “Return to the Map” is Li Gonglin, a native of Longmian Mountain in the Northern Song Dynasty. From the poems of Zhou Zizhi, the poem of the Northern Song Dynasty, the poem of the first and Southern Song Dynasty can vaguely figure out the Li painting he saw: “Yuan Ming poetry becomes colorless painting, and Long Mian paints a silent poem. In the past … Long Mian’s heart is handy, and the pen is in his heart. “The” colorless painting “here should refer to Li Gonglin’s” white painting “. From the various “imitation Li Longmian” Tao Qian story painted from later generations such as Yuan and Ming people, such as Zhao Mengfu (Biography) “Tao Qian Guizhu”, Xu Zonglu Titan’s “Tao Qian Story Map” and other observations. Its “white drawing” style. In addition, Li Gonglin’s portrayal of Tao Qian has also fully confirmed the argument that the artists have admired since the Tang Dynasty. Lin Qingliu. “This shows that while portraying the image of the protagonist, Li Gonglin also pays more attention to the inner spirit of the character. The plot of the poem vividly reflects Tao Qian who is not willing to ask for wealth in the Emperor’s hometown, and does not “fold the waist for the five buckets of rice”. From the “Xiyuan Yaji Ji” named Mihuan, “the scarf is wild brown, and the person who returned from the horizontal volume paintings is the return of Li Bo Shi”. , Make thoughtful.

Northern Song Zhao Yan (Chuan) Listening to Qin Map (partial)

Northern Song Zhao Yan (Chuan) Listening to Qin Map (partial)

Song Anonymous Huichang Jiu Lao Tu (partial)

Continuing Li Gonglin’s painting method has appeared on his behalf since the Song Dynasty. ” Li Tang (Biography) Volumes of “Going Going”, Song of Song “Going Return to Care and Painting”, Yuan Chu He Cheng’s “Guizhuang Tu” volume, and the unknown Tibet 》 Volumes, all of which are metaphorical with Tao Qian’s return to the hidden story. The painters of Tao Qian’s Ge Qian, thin eyes, long -sized, wide robes, rattan rods, and wooden crickets mostly use “white paintings” or “white drawing” light color techniques in the creation. 》 段》》》》 depicts, or intercepted the potential hip rods, the scarf filter wine, the Dongli Ai chrysanthemum and other fragments are combined or displayed independently. These expressions are gradually fixed at the time of the Song and Yuan Dynasties.

On the basis of continuing the Yuan Dynasty style, the Ming Dynasty painters more reflected their creative personality. The Forbidden City Tibetan Wang Zhongyu’s “Tao Yuanming Portrait”, Zhang Feng’s “Yuanming Sniff Chrysanthemum” axis, the Page of the Palace Museum of the Taipei Palace Museum, “Yuanming Yi Zhitu” pages, etc., all showed their superb shape and pen and ink skills, respectively. The resolute arrogance of Yuanming’s resignation of returning to the field, the leisureness of Dongli picking the cold and cold, the unruly appearance and spirit of the drunk support, the uniform composition, the line drawing and the weakness of the same types of themes of the Ming and Qing dynasties are weak The vulgarity is unpalatable. Continuing the work of the Song people’s long -volume segments depicting the words “Return to Victory”, the “Liaoning Provincial Museum” Li Zai, Ma Yan, and Xia Yan’s “Return to the Map” volume is the most prominent. The second paragraph of the painting was supplemented by the Qing people, but it still made people feel the distinctive characteristics. It can be said that the “courtyard” style of this period, that is, unified coordination and variety of changes.

Southern Song Dynasty Li Tang Caiwei Tu Silk color 27.2 × 89.6cm

The Southern Song Dynasty was unreasonable, but the painters in the north of the north were full of anger for the alien races and their nostalgia for their homeland. Li Tang’s “Cai Weitu” portrays the story of Boyi and Uncle Qi “Shouyang Gao Yin” recorded in “Lu’s Spring and Autumn” and “Historical Records”. Boyi and Uncle Qi sitting on the ground are the son of the lonely bamboo monarch at the end of Shang. After the King of Wu was destroyed, they shameed Zhou Lu, avoided the Shouyangshan, and eventually starved to death. This story has been circulating eternal, becoming the symbol of the ancients’ loyalty to the festival. The moment the painter intercepted the two people’s rest, the shape broke through the quiet and graceful shape and mood of the character painting of the Northern Song Dynasty. Highlight the stubborn personality of the “Gao Yin”. The online drawing changed the round and beautiful figure of Li Gonglin since Li Gonglin, and the outline of the clothes was written with a strong stroke. Yoying, refusing to compromise the spiritual temperament. As far as techniques are concerned, this picture laid and represents the main tone of the pursuit of character painting in the Southern Song Dynasty, and was further carried forward by Ma Yuan, Xia Gui and others, affecting the far and the Ming Dynasty.

古代高士图及其衍变——故宫“林下风雅”展之深度解读(下)

The important value of this story and work is that when countless people, including the king of the Song Dynasty, and the Gui Qi of the Song Dynasty, were holding the idea of ​​”changing” in Hangzhou and stealing peace in Hangzhou. The choice of people who do not know the current affairs show the preciousness of the ages. When the work is praised, at the time of the dynasty, he adheres to the loyalty to the home country at the cost of sacrificing his life, so that this picture surpasses the level of generally praising “hidden” and not cooperating with the power of power. Special police metaphorical significance and example force.

As far as “Gao Shitu” is concerned, the two Song Dynasty can be called the important “watershed” in the early and later periods of the creation of this subject: the some subjects in the early “Gao Shitu” are continued in a classic form. Subject matter and pattern. In addition, under the influence of the “literati painting” thought, the character portrayal is more advocated to the conversation of “Shen Yun”, and the overall work of the work pays more attention to the background depiction and the atmosphere. The model.

Since the Tang Dynasty, the tea ceremony was happy. “Tea Saint” Lu Yu and “Tea Fairy” Lu Tonglu was a hermit. In the Tang and Five Dynasties, more than one painter created “Lu Yu fried tea” (see the front table). By the Southern Song Dynasty, the paintings depicting Lu Tong began to appear and increased, such as Li Tang, Liu Songnian, and Mu Yi in the Southern Song Dynasty. Liu Songnian (biography) “Lu Tong Cooking Tea Map” volume of the Existing Palace Museum, painted a few rooms, green locusts, and the old lady raised their fans to the fire. Yuchuan Zi Lu was sitting on the case, listening to Songtao, seemed to be waiting. The character’s image is simple and fine, because the silk ground is too damaged, the image of the two people and slaves is incomplete. The style is near Liu Songnian, but it is not as good as its “Four Scenery Landscapes” volume and “Luo Han Tu”. “Shi Qu Bao Di” three compilations are recorded in the other name of Liu, which should be in the same draft with the Forbidden City. The prevalence of Lu Yu and Lu Tong’s theme. On the one hand, because people appreciate the vulgar thoughts of the two, on the one hand, they are closely linked to the pursuit of exquisite life since the Five Dynasties and Song Dynasty. In addition to reading, poetry, and literary meetings, activities related to garden -related flowers, incense burning, tea tasting, admission, and painting have gradually penetrated into the daily life of literati, which has caused a large number of expressions of such scenes. Painting, such as Ma Yuan’s “Bamboo Burning Fragrant Picture”, Zhao Yan’s “Listening to the Qin”, the Song of the Song Dynasty “Huai Yin Xia Map”, “Song Yin Talking Tao”, “Snow Window Reading” Yuan Ren “Lotus Pavilion”, etc. It can be said to be the biggest theme of literati landscape and figure painting after the Yuan Dynasty.

Yuan Zhao Yuan’s “Lu Yu Cooking Tea Map” depicted in the “Vulgar guests who do not come to mountain birds are scattered, and Hui Tong brush up the new tea”. After two hundred years, when Jiaxing connoisseur and painter Li Rihua read this picture, The mood is the same as the people in the painting. When he was young, he was also an ambitious and once served as the Taipi Temple Shaoqing. At this time, he did not care about the state affairs that became increasingly dangerous. In the campaign of poetry and wine, he made the reputation of “museum gentlemen” such as Dong Qichang and Wang Weijian. The living conditions of Li’s father and son represent the universal indifference and escape mentality of literati in the late Ming Dynasty facing political corruption and social turmoil.

Regarding the theme of “Lu Tong Cooking Tea”, there are also a shafts in the handed down, but their characters, gods, and even pens, ink, and color, will learn Ding Yunpeng all the way tomorrow. Ding Yunpeng, a painter from Ding Yunpeng, a painter of the Palace Museum, Wang Shimin, “Yuchuan Tea Cooking Map”, acted as Li Gonglin’s style of painting, and focused on portraying Lu Tong’s elegant and refined style. In terms of servants and 塑 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在 在Wen Zhengming and Qiu Ying, this work is the boutique of Ding Shixiu’s rigorous style.

4. The symbolization of “Gao Shi” and “Gao Shitu”

古代高士图及其衍变——故宫“林下风雅”展之深度解读(下)

The “hidden” ideas changes in the changes of the times, and the “Gao Shi” and the “Gao Shitu” of the theme of the era show their own characteristics. Since the Song and Yuan Dynasty, not only has there many specific characters in the early days, but also the plot and instantaneous, narrow “Gao Shitu” with the most personality of the personality of the characters, which shows the scope of the character story. A large number of landscape figures created in the name of “Gao Shitu”. The characters in these works do not have the storyline, nor the specific directions of the age, identity, name, clothing, appliances and storylines, but only the embellishment of landscapes and gardens, that is, “point of view”. Although they reflect the alienation of the literati on politics at a certain level, they are close to the beautiful and natural landscapes and the longing for the life of the garden, but from the artistic appreciation, their face is the same, the limb language is formulated, and the “Gao Shi” is eventually caused The tendency of symbolization and “Gao Shitu” is commonly existed, resulting in the “hidden” spiritual core that the “Gao Shitu” originally represented by the “Gao Shitu” was blurred.

In such works, most of the plants such as pine, tungs, bamboo, willows, willows, willows, plums, chrysanthemums, bananas, ancient wood and other plant environments appear at the same time; , Docks, huts, grasshoppers, water pavilions, etc.; Their plots and states are mostly chanting, reading, Fuqin, Liang, Callery, flower appreciation, fragrant incense, meditation, conversation, littering, rock habitat, Bu Zhu, etc.; The characters have no specific identity and story, simple and simple, and simple in costumes, many costumes, or independent lakes, or sitting loose shades, or two or five together, or to gather in three or five. status. For example, the Southern Song Dynasty Liu Songnian’s “Four Scenery Landscapes”, “Song window read Easy Map”, Xia Gui’s “Wuzhuxi Hall”, and Yuan Wang Meng’s “Summer Mountain House” and so on all belonged to this kind.

Wang Meng’s “Summer Mountain House”

The “Gao Shitu” in the Yuan Dynasty was not lacking. In addition to the aforementioned He Cheng’s “Guizhuang Tu”, Wang Zhenpeng’s “Bo Ya Drum Piano” was the best. The drawing of the story of Bo Ya and the sub -period should not be later than Song. For example, the poem “Title Period Listening to the Piano” and “Title of Bo Ya Jue” poems in the Southern Song Dynasty. In this picture, Wang’s picture is written in Boya and childhood. The conceived ideas, the image is clear, and the lines are described like the clouds and flowing. It not only breaks the monotonous program of the “white drawing method”, is beautiful and simple, making the level of pen and ink more plump, reflecting the high level of artistic level and literati, and is a masterpiece of the character painting of the Yuan Dynasty.

古代高士图及其衍变——故宫“林下风雅”展之深度解读(下)

Cui Zizhong’s “Li Bai Zangyun Map Ax”

With the destruction of the short -term Yuanmeng rule, the prosperity of the combination of “hidden” culture and painting ended. Under the pair of political atmosphere of the two generations of the Ming and Qing dynasties, the traditional “hidden” culture has gradually diminished. Although many painters from the beginning of the Ming Dynasty have the works of “Gao Shitu”, such as Dai Jin’s “Shangshan Sihao Tu”, Du Yan’s “Bamboo Forest Seven Sages” and “Guxian Poetry Innovation”, etc. Top. The main reason is that landscape paintings and “four gentlemen” are the more loved themes of literati painters. The literati participating and engaged in figure paintings are becoming increasingly reduced. Extremely limited. The Wumen family of the Ming Dynasty showed the most abundant works of literati returning to Yinyuan. Among them, Zhou Chen’s “Spring Spring Small Hidden Map”, Wen Zhengming’s “Linti Young Picture” and “East Garden Map” were the best. At the end of the Ming Dynasty, the representative painter Chen Hongzhang and others of “Transformer” figure paintings, although the “Gao Shitu” pattern and styling have outstanding personalities, and in terms of subject matter, most of them use the “hidden” topic to exert their own intentions Just. For example, Chen Hongzhang’s “Sixteen Views”, the focus of its performance is neither a high section of the spirit of the “hidden” itself or living in the rock acupoint, but by depicting more than a dozen more than a dozen more than a dozen of the hermits to visit the villagers, the chrysanthemum, the book, the moon, and the fragrant incense. The elegant things show the painter’s long -term ideal life without asking the world. Cui Zizhong’s “Li Bai Zangyun Map” describes the legend of Li Baiju’s lungs, the legend of the strong clouds in the storage mountain and “daily drinking spring lying Baiyun”. The two men’s expression and creative techniques clearly inspired and influence between the art of printmaking and literati painting at the end of the Ming Dynasty.

In the late Ming and early Qing dynasties, tens of thousands of Han literati doctors experienced the tragic change of the country’s death, adhered to the status of the survivors, or died generously, or refused to enter the new dynasty. In the early Qing Dynasty, the huge group of “survivors” was only a few dozens of people were recorded in the “Draft of the Qing Dynasty · Revisibility Biography”. At that time, the painter had no longer drawing “Cai Weitu”, “Jinwen Gong’s Restoration” like Li Tang, and warned the world. Infinite humiliation, anger, and “wanting to talk about rest” are pinned in the poem, and the style is holding.

Palace Museum Mandarin Palace Painting and Calligraphy Museum on the exhibition site

The literature and art of any subject matter and form, all of which are abolished with the times, the glory of the times, the political and obscure, the economic development, and the changes of the ideas, especially the scholars in different situations. The “Gao Shitu” expressed by the creation of Mingzhi has gradually shifted to landscape paintings that are sentimental and borrowed by scenery. The inevitable result brought by the improvement of scholars’ self -awareness. However, if you explore the core of the traditional literati spirit, it is not difficult to find that whether it is the character painting of “watching Guihong, swinging the five string”, or “talking about writing in the chest” landscape painting, it advocates the freedom of the soul and pursues the pursuit of the soul. The connotation of personality liberation has not changed in substantially for thousands of years, which is also the most precious and most attractive in the spirit of traditional Chinese literati.

Link: “Forest and elegant -the Palace Museum Tibetan Painting Special Exhibition (Phase II)” Exhibition

Exhibition time: September 1, 2021-October 31st, 2021

Exhibition location: The Painting Museum of the Palace Museum of Mandarin Painting and Calligraphy Museum

Attached exhibit list

The first unit avoids the world

古代高士图及其衍变——故宫“林下风雅”展之深度解读(下)

01 Ren Yi’s ear washing the axis

02 Shi Tao’s character story scroll

03 Li Tang Caiwei Picture Volume Southern Song Dynasty

04 Shen Yan Huaigu’s Label (10 Select 2) Ming Ming

古代高士图及其衍变——故宫“林下风雅”展之深度解读(下)

05 Daijin Shangshan Sihao Picture Axis

06 Ren Yifuchun Gao Hidden Map Axis

古代高士图及其衍变——故宫“林下风雅”展之深度解读(下)

07 Lu Yan (Biography) Liuyi Picture Volumes Volumes of the Early Song Dynasty and Early Song

08 Zhang Xun hired Pang Tu shaft

09 Li Gonglin (Biography) Bamboo Forest Seven Sages Pictures

古代高士图及其衍变——故宫“林下风雅”展之深度解读(下)

10 Song Dynasty Bamboo Forest Dial Ruan Tu Page Song

古代高士图及其衍变——故宫“林下风雅”展之深度解读(下)

11 Zhao Mengfu (Biography) Yuanming Story Map Map Mingzi

12 Xie Bin, Zhu Shengzhu Forest Seven Sages Tap Axis

13 Feidanxu Sun Deng’s long howth screaming axis clear

14 Fei Danxu Guo Wenju’s Story Clear Clear

15 Wang Zhongyu Tao Yuanming is a shaft

16 Zhangfeng Yuanming olfactory chrysanthemum map axis

17 Li Shida Huxi Sanxiao Picture Fan Ming

18 Shen Zongzheng returns to resignation

19 Huayan Li Yingqiu Lin Read the picture clear

20 Shen Yan Huai Ancient Character Starts Ming Ming

21 Cui Zizhong Li Bai Zangyun Map Axis

22 Qiu Ying Songlin Liuyi Figure page

23 Qiu Ying High Mountain Flowing Water Picture Page (actually Lu Tong Cooking Tea Map) Ming Ming

24 Song people (Old Biography Liu Songnian) Lu Tong Cooking Tea Pictures Volume Song Song

古代高士图及其衍变——故宫“林下风雅”展之深度解读(下)

25 Ding Yunpeng Yuchuan Tea Cooking Axis

古代高士图及其衍变——故宫“林下风雅”展之深度解读(下)

26 Zhu Ying Chen Tao’s Story Clear Clear

27 Du Yan Shao Yong is axis axis

28 Xiao Chenlin Forest Exploration Meeting Axis Clear

29 Hao Jing lives in the axis axis

The second unit Yanju Youxing

01 Wang Zhenpeng Bo tooth Drum Drum Piano Volume

02 Yu Zhiding Right Army Title Fan Fan Clear Clear

03 Huang Yan-Qu Shui Liu Yixuan Volume Bright

04 Wen Zhengming Lanting Xiu Xiu Tu Guanming

05 Du Yan Painting Guxian Poetic Pictures

06 Zhou Wenji’s Liulitang Character Five Generation

07 Wu Zichun Night Banquet Tao Liyuan Capital Clear

08 Song of the Song Dynasty, the old picture of the Changjiu, the old picture of the South Song Dynasty

09 Peng Shunqing Xiangshan Jiu Lao Tu Xiang Ming

10 Wang Shuyu Character Story Story (12 Select 4) Qingqing

11 Ming people Xiyuan Yaji Tu Tuanjing screen (10 selected 5) Ming Ming

12 Chen Hongzhang, Huayan Xiyuan Yaji Ji Ming

古代高士图及其衍变——故宫“林下风雅”展之深度解读(下)

13 Songs of the Song Dynasty Southern Tang Dynasty (Actually for Xiyuan Yaji) Song

14 Du Yi’s Dongpo Title Bamboo Caption Axis

15 Zhao Yan Listening to the Qinxu axis Song

16 Ren Ji Character Story screen, Dunsu Ai Lian Qing

17 Li Gonglin (Biography) Longmian Villa Tu Tu Ming imitation

18 Song of Song Dynasty Burning Fragrant Fragrance Page Southern Song

19 Wang Yu Yushan Viewing the axis clear

20 Wu Weicing Dance Caption Axis

21 Qiu Ying Bamboo Academy Popular Page Page

22 Zhang Lingqiu Forest Gao Shixu Axis

23 Chen Hongzhang’s viewing the picture axis

24 Hongli, Dong Bangda Tang and Song people plum blossoms poetry

※ Tips for Appointment of the Palace Mandarin Mandarin Temple ※

“Forest and elegant — Special Exhibition (Phase II)” of the Palace Museum Tibetan Painting (Phase II) “was held in the Mandarin Hall of the Palace Museum from September 1st to October 31st, 2021, and did not sell tickets alone. According to the current epidemic prevention and control situation, in accordance with the principle of appointment, current limit, and peak peaks, the exhibition implements free appointments to enter the venue, starting the appointment 10 days in advance. until.

The audience can use the second -generation ID card or passport information to make an appointment with the second -generation ID card or passport information through the Palace Museum’s Internet Ticketing Website (https://gugong.ktmtech.cn/) and WeChat. The admission visit to be admitted to test the health code, body temperature, and brush the identity document (the identity document that consistent with the certificate number reserved when the appointment is reserved when the ticket is checked).

Editor in charge: Li Mei

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