“Academic Exhibition” Xu Xie’s document, telling you about the official resumes of the Song Dynasty officials and officials 202201-02 (Total 1919)

Transfer from the “Nanjing Museum” WeChat public account.

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

Remember in Song Yunzhan’s previous article “Wenzhi World”

The “Political Political Affairs” part mentioned

Xu Xuan Li Document

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

?

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

Actually this work

Not only did it complete a complete record of an ordinary civilian official from the Southern Song Dynasty from low -level to intermediate officials, but also specifically demonstrated the political appearance of the document system, official management, and government operation in the middle and late Southern Song Dynasty.

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

Southern Song official encyclopedia

Essence

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

today

Let’s explain it in detail together

Xu Xi’s document was a paper stolen in paper documents in the Southern Song Tomb of Wuyi County, Jinhua City, Zhejiang Province. After archeological excavation, the epitaph was confirmed that the tomb owner was the Southern Song Dynasty. The documents include

“Recording Bai Tell”

Volume two,

“Recording Baiyao Huang”

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

A volume,

“Record White Printing Paper”

Twelve volumes, completely recorded Xu Xili’s first entry into the official in the 14th year of Jiading (1221), and the resume of the official officials during the twelve years of Chunyou (1252). It is currently the most systematic and complete Song Dynasty paper paper unearthed in China. It records the official resume and official attitude of an official, showing the bureaucratic system, government operation, and social style of the Southern Song Dynasty, and filling a gap in the research of Song history.

Xu Xunli

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

Xu Yili (1202-1254), the word respects it, Wuzhou Wuyi. Xu said that he was born in the “Famous Confucianism”, and his father Xu Bangxian was a generation of famous ministers. Xu Bangxian was the “Provincial Yuan” in the four years of Shaoxi (1193). The great-grandfather Lin Dazhong of the wife of the wife of Xu Xunli (1201-1247) was a famous minister in the Southern Song Dynasty. Xu Yili is still the in -laws of power.

In the years of “and the crown”, Xu Xili started to start with his father’s shade and started with Beijing officials. For more than thirty years of career, the official order was promoted from the thirty -level “dweller” (from nine grades) to the “Dr. Chaosan” (from six grades) in the eighteenth level. In the second year of Baoyou (1254), he died of a typical life of “Dr. Pan San and Promoting Fujian City Shipping and Knowing Quanzhou”.

Xu Xunli Chronicle

Xu Xi Li calendar appointed position

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Xu Bangxian Academic Dating Circle

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Xu Bangxian, Xu Bangxian, “learned from the teachers and friends, and contacted the Biography of the Book of Scriptures.” “Jinhua School” Lu Zuqian is a fellow and in -laws with the famous officials of the Southern Song Dynasty. “Yongjia School”, “Yongkang School” and “Jinhua School” all belong to the “Zhejiang School” of the New Confucianism in the Song Dynasty. From the perspective of his academic life, Xu Bangxian mainly exchanged for scholars in the “East Zhejiang School”. Essence

Xu Yi’s ritual trace map

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

Shang Shu’s provincial emperor’s purpose, produced into the Shangshu province, was sent to the appointed person, called “敕 牒”.成 成 is written in yellow paper, so it is called “敕 Huang”. “Recording Bai” refers to copying the original on the white paper.

Both the body and the Huang Huang were appointed documents issued by the officials of the Song Dynasty to officials. The difference was that the official products were given to the body, and the non -official product gave the Huang Huang. Some officials include Jilu officials, officers of the monitoring of the Taishi Provincial Temple, and state and county officials.

Xu Xunli Bai Yanhuang recorded the 10 crickets he had appointed. Nine of them were the appointments of the specific dispatch, and 1 was the appointment of the “Temple Guan” of the palace view. Each cricket began with “Shangshu Province” and signed the end with officials. Xu Xiangli was appointed 13 positions in his life, 10 of which was given to Huang Huang, and the other 3 positions were sued.

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

Sliding left and right to view →

Xu Weili Baiyao Huang Waifeng

12.7 cm in vertical

Horizontal 11.5 cm

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

Recording Baiyao Huang Interpretation Example

Fourteen years of Jiading (1221)

The awarded Xu Xi Li Jian Lin Anfu Grain Institute was issued by Shangshu Province, the post of posting ministry

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1. The agency of the awarding agency is Shangshu Province

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2. Lin’an Grain Academy is an institution that distributes Lulu to officials of Lin’an Government. Zhenchengcang is a warehouse located on Shihuqiao Road today.

3. Explain that Xu Yili is in the state of waiting (alternate)

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

4. Classical term

5. Signing date

6. “Fake” refers to during vacation, “Ren” is Ren Xiyi

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7. “betting” refers to the signature flower, and the word “betting” represents the original official’s grass word signature when copying. “Zheng” is Zheng Zhaoxian

8. At that time, Zai Zhi signed in the order of official titles from low to high.

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

↑ Towards the upper sliding view ↓

The body, also known as the official statement, and sued, is the appointment document issued by the court to officials, and is the certificate and symbol of the official identity. There are three types of identities in the Southern Song Dynasty: the tilted, the grace, and the procurement. The appointed body is the prime minister and the prime ministers and other senior officials; The personnel department reported up and reviewed at all levels, and the conventional promotion approved by the court was approved.

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

Xu Weili Bai Quan Quan Quan Qian Quan Quan Quan 11. 10 of them are the promotion of the official order of Jiulu, and 1 is the lack of complaints to be awarded the Taifu Temple. Taifu Temple is a staff member, so he was given himself. Xu Weili was awarded 13 sent officials in his life, so there were 3 first -achors and transfer officials in the document. The document also lacks a grant to be a prison book and a primroty of Fujian City.

11 The proclaim includes the body of the body of 5 and the proclaimation of 6. As a middle and lower level officials, he is not qualified to use the system. There are different official document formats and document procedures for the award and the player, but both reflect the circulation of time and space in the two. Therefore, it can be seen that Xu Xi’s document is an important information about the operation of the Southern Song Dynasty’s government affairs.

Record Bai Tell Term Explain Example I (Gao Gao)

In the fifteenth year of Jiading (1222) May 23rd, Xu Xiecheng Feng Lang told himself

1. Xu Yanli transfer to the official order before the official, from the nine grades

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

2. Xu Xieli transferred to the official level after the official, Zheng Jiupin

3. The job is unchanged, and it is still the Grain Institute of Ling’anfu

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4.1221, Zhai Xingzong, the deputy capital of Zhenjiang, “the emperor’s treasure of the destiny”. In 1222, the Emperor Ning Zong received the treasure in the Daqing Temple, amnesty in the world, and the civilian officers advanced to one class. Therefore, Xu Xunli has transferred from Jiupin Deng Lang to Zheng Jiupin to Cheng Fenglang

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

5. Classical term

6. After the time of writing

7. Shi Miyuan

8. Xuanyu

9. Yu Yingfu

10. “Zhuo” is Cheng Zhuo.

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11. “Wei” is Hu Wei.

12. The time for the document to the capital of Shangshu

13. Shangshu Zuo Division, who is responsible for receiving and receiving documents, received

14. Shang Shu Zuo Silangzhong Fu official department executes

15. “Cost” may be the origin of the name of the body

16. Classical term

17. The executive official who issued the body

18. Three documents responsible for writing, covering, and making in charge of body writing, covering, and making. Due to the low position, they must be signed with their surnames to facilitate chasing

19. That is, the supervisor’s court, and the chief of the production and issuing agency signed

20. The time to be released

Recording Bai Tell Term Example II (Playing Tels)

Chunyou Five Years (1245) On the 19th of the first month of the Monthly Monthly Modeling Investigation Integrated Integrated

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

1. The experience of officials is reviewed and referred to as “grinding survey”

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2. Xu Yanli transfer to the official before sending officials, Zhengba Pin

3. Xu Yanli transferred to the official after the official, from the seven grades

4. “Demonstrate” refers to the court’s preferential prime minister and other senior officials, which is exempted from signing ordinary documents. “Bell” is Fan Zhong

5. “Not up” means that it has been appointed and has not yet been in office. “Fan” is Du Fan, the prime minister

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

6. Deputy Prime Minister Youxing has been appointed and has not yet been in office. 7. Deputy Prime Minister Liu Bozheng

8. The Ministry of officials Shangshu is a necessary signing for the establishment of it, so no one has to take a note. Here, the signed by the Ministry of Criminal Du Du Du Du and the Ministry of Officials Shangshu

9. “Wait” is a sign on the appointment of the transfer of officials

10.

11. In the event, Li Xingchuan represents the province under the door and agrees

Write the word “reading”, the word “reading” is not signed without agreeing to indicate the rejection

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

12. Generally, the two deputy prime ministers conduct “province” and “review” (that is, review), and deputy prime ministers have not been in office.

13. The word “Wen” is painted by the emperor and agrees

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14. After the plan, please please

15. Classical term

Xu Zhi Liren Ren Ji Lu Guanjie

Southern Song official official products and clothes

Officials in the “Filial Filial Filial Scripture”

Printing paper, the original meaning refers to the official document paper stamped with the official print, which is suitable for a variety of official documents. Regulating the behavior and performance of the officials is particularly important for printing paper. Therefore, the narrow printed paper is an official’s file record and the “performance assessment form”. Officials took office, and the superior department issued a piece of printing paper with it. The officials and performances of officials are recorded in the case, which is called “approval” as the basis for future assessment and promotion. Xu said the document, with the largest number of white printing paper, the largest length, the lines and fonts, rigorous and neat, and completely copied according to the original format. Earlier, the print paper was only seen in the Song Dynasty documents. Xu Xunli Baiyin Paper had to see the real thing for the first time and was the treasure of the country.

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Xu Xi Li Yin Paper Application Division has many types, and there are printed paper with various contents such as repatriation, transfers, insurance, appointment, delivery, solving, helping, testing, and serving. A total of 12 volumes, another piece of paper, recorded the entire picture of the examination, insurance, and archives of a Southern Song Dynasty officials, and is an excellent material for studying the actual operation of the Southern Song Dynasty.

Example of recording white print paper interpretation

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Poly Supervisor Lin’an Grain Academy Printing Paper

1. The administrative department responsible for approval

2. The sequence of bureaucrats in the Song Dynasty is divided into two categories: parental officers (administrative chiefs responsible for civil affairs) and supervisors (officials stationed in various places regulatory finance). Like Xu Yili entered the official, he will be the official as an official first

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

3. Fill in the printing paper and record the performance of the officials during the tenure 4. Local officials fill in the printing paper by the state where the state is located

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5. Central officials are filled in printing paper by the institution that they belong. 6. Go to the Ministry of Officials to participate in the selection

7. Printing Paper and Official Department Examination Division

8. Responsible for printing paper production and given officials

9. “Give” means that after the official entered the official, the court issued a print paper for any approved book. The subsequent file content continued to continue

10.

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

Xu Weili Baiyin Paper Outside

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Child 36.4 cm

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

Heng 35.2 cm

Finally, let’s discuss two questions together:

Q

Why does the Southern Song saying that the ink is as new?

A

The main characteristics of “closed, deep burial, anti -corrosion” are the main features. The intact preservation of the document depends on this: the coffin is filled with mercury, the outer wall is painted as a whole, placed in the brick (tomb); The gap between the coffin and the tomb wall is filled with the “three -in -soil” mixed with lime, clay, sand, and glutinous rice juice to seal the coffin in the inside; over the grave room, cover the roof of the slate, and add the soil. The coffin and funeral items are completely isolated from the outside world. With such layers of defense, the documents are immortal.

The ink is like a new Xu Wei Li document

Why does Xu Xi’s tomb follow the burial document?

In order to save the bottom of the ancient officials, official documents that represented the personal identity of “told”, “敕 Huang” and “printing paper” were copied according to the original format, which was called “record white”. The Song Dynasty stipulated that “recording white” was copied by legal books and shops. After the signing of the seal, the original authorities checked the original, which can be regarded as an effective copy of the official document. Xu Xi Li’s document is a copy of the “Record Bai” used for burial. It is used to ensure the identity of the deceased in the underworld, while the descendants retain the original rights and interests to protect the family as descendants of scholars. The official document copied in the tomb is not a case of Xu Xi’s document. It is a similar document unearthed from the Tomb of the Pan Ciming Wife Gao’s tomb of the Pan Ciming Wife Gao’s Tomb, Lanxi County, Lanxi County, which belongs to Wuyi County.

Gao’s Bai tested in the Southern Song Tomb of Lanxi County

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Xu Xi’s tombroom was stolen in 2005. According to the grave robber, in addition to the documents, there are also brushes, tanches, crystal town paper, town ruler, seal and a small amount of utensils. Archaeologists only discovered red lacquer coffins, epitaphs discarded after being destroyed, and unsatisfactory fabrics and bone colonies. The tomb chamber of the forest office of Xu Xiyi has long been stolen in history, and only has the epitaph.

Tomb panorama

Tomb flat, sectional map

This is a dual -cave side side by side. The burial tomb of the husband and wife of the slate is the tomb of the left acupoint. The surface is built on the surface, which is in a form of multi -level platforms. The tomb is at the end of the central axis. The cemetery was built on the mountains of the dragon king.

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Before the cemetery opens

Cemetery structure

Seal

Wooden coffin

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In addition, the three tin wares of the gongs (water basins), saliva, and bowl of the tomb of Xu said were recovered. This is a set of sanctuaders: water basin cleansing and cleaning hands, bowls of mouthwash, saliva to undertake mouthwash, combined with combination, and portable. The painting of “Spring Tour” and “Skull Phantom Map” is painted, and the tomb of the Song Dynasty is also unearthed.

“Spring Tour” in the Map of the Spring Tour “

There are combinations of the three things in the cage in the cage in the cage

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

“Skeleton Phantom Map”

There is a side gong in the cage,

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

Salon, a bowl of pins

Unearthed from the Song Tomb of Wuzhou Mountain, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu

A set of crickets: gongs, saliva, bowls

According to the grave robber’s identification of the document, in April 2012, the Zhejiang Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archeology, together with the Wuyi County Museum, rescued the archeological excavation of the tombs located in the east suburbs of Wuyi County in the east suburbs of Wuyi County, and unearthed the epitaphs of Xu said the concubine. Documents and epitaphs confirmed each other and confirmed that the document was the funeral of the tomb.

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Xu Zhi Li Episodes Top

Exhibition information

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

Exhibition time: 2021.12.18-2022.3.20

Exhibition location: special exhibition hall 3F11 exhibition hall

End

Xu Xuan Li Document

「学术展览」徐谓礼文书,为你讲述宋朝官员的仕宦履历和官场百态丨202201-02(总第1919期)

“Recording Bai Tell”

“Recording Baiyao Huang”

“Record White Printing Paper”

Sliding left and right to view →

Sliding left and right to view →

Fourteen years of Jiading (1221)

↑ Towards the upper sliding view ↓

↑ Towards the upper sliding view ↓

↑ Towards the upper sliding view ↓

Q

A

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