Wang Quntao, Institute of Religious Research, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences
The culture of wealth and gods in my country has a long history, and the simple emotions of people’s pursuit of wealth and the beautiful wishes of living in peace and career and auspiciousness. Since ancient times, more than one god has been worshiped as the god of wealth, the symbol of wealth and the head of wealth. These wealth gods include: the gods of wealth and wealth than dry, Fan Ye, Zhao Gongming, Guan Yu, the god of wealth, the gods of wealth, the gods of wealth, Wuxian, Wu Tong, etc. In the long development process of the God of Wealth, all kinds of wealth god images are undoubtedly a key element of connecting people’s “worshiping God of Wealth” and the content of secular life. In particular, the image evolution history of Zhao Gongming, the gods of wealth in Taoism, combines many elements such as Taoist fairy doctrine, folk cultural concepts, and social customs, showing a rich humanistic connotation.
Zhao Gongming, also known as Zhao Xuantan, Marshal Zhao, and Marshal Zhao, is the “First God of Wealth” that Taoism and folk beliefs are respectful. The specific image of the God of Wealth Zhao Gongming is mainly reflected in various images such as Taoist water and land paintings, scriptures, and folk paper and horse New Year paintings, and presents a variety of superposition features of symbolic elements.
Zhao Gongming first appeared in the “Ghost” image of “Ghost” in the Jin Dynasty. “Search God” Volume Five Clouds: “There are major events in the country this year, three generals, distribution of more than ten people, and other ten people, participated in Zhao Gongming’s prefecture.” You Yun: “God Zhao Gongming, Zhong Shiji, etc. of God: The governor of the ghost is taken down. “Zhao Gongming and Zhong Shiji, including the three generals, led the ghosts, worshiped the life of God to the world, and took the life through the way of disease. It can be seen that in the Eastern Jin Dynasty in the early fourth AD, Zhao Gongming initially image was the “ghost general” who led the ghost soldiers and the lower bounds.
In the early Taoist literature, Zhao Gongming also appeared in the image of “ghost ghosts” and “ghosts”. In the Taoist classics of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Zhao Gongming is one of the “Five -Five Ghosts” and one of the “Five Fangshuang Ghosts”: “Western white ghost master, surname Zhao, Ming Gongming, leading thousands of thousands Ghosts, do not note the illness of the black. “The Northern and Southern Dynasties Dao Shu’s” Taishangdong Yuanshen Mantra Sutra “also recorded:” There are also Liu Yuanda, Zhang Yuanbo, Zhao Gongming, Li Gongzhong, Shi Wenye, Zhong Shiji, each of them, each will be the five wounded ghost essence. 250,000 people, the plague is sick. “It can be seen that it can be seen,
Zhao Gongming initially was the “ghost ghost” and “ghost handsome” who led the ghost soldiers and injected the black disease.
At the same time, Zhao Gongming, with the background color of “plague” and “ghosts”, also overlap the symbol of the “gods”. The Northern and Southern Dynasties Shangqing Pai Dao Jing’s “Dongzhen Taixiao Langshu” described Zhao Gongming as the “God of God”:
Three feet on the right, the text said: The Emperor of the Emperor sued the Emperor Tuzuzhong, the gods of the five parties, Zhao Gongming, etc., the emperor of the king of a country, the man and the woman, the man and the woman, the year of the year, the old age, the halal of the life …
In addition, from the Northern and Southern Dynasties to the Sui and Tang dynasties, a large number of funeral documents (epitaphs, town tombs, etc.) also appeared in the image of “Zhao Gongming”. From this point of view, Zhao Gongming’s early image overlapped the elements of the ghosts, ghosts (ghosts), and the gods. However, we have not yet discovered Zhao Gongming’s image materials during this period.
In the Song and Yuan dynasties, the Thunder Fa system of Taoist Gods and Qingwei factions began to absorb Zhao Gongming as the “Marshal God of Thunder”. Japanese scholar Matsumoto Matsumoto pointed out in “Taoism and Folk Belief in the Song Dynasty” that “Thunder Fa” started with the spell of the folk, with the power of thunder as a source, and through different thunder spells Exorcism. In the Song and Yuan Dao Taoist Lei Fa system, Zhao Gongming became an important god of heaven and marshal. In addition, it is the Taoist classic of the “Thunder Fa Department” during this period that provides a direct theoretical basis for the earliest form of Zhao Gongming’s image. From the Taoist Fa of the Dao Dao Council in the late Yuan Dynasty, we found a specific description of Zhao Gongming’s appearance and color characteristics:
Coach, Fu Tianguang Chong Miao Xilin Yuyuan Cave Qing Chong and Fei Shen Jun, Marshal Zhao Marshal, Gong Ming, iron face, round eyes, Hu Yan, wearing iron 幞, yellow wipe, golden armor hug, green Boots, iron whip in their right hand, raised iron rides in the left hand, and then black tigers.
Correspondingly, the existing Song Gongming images during the Song and Yuan Dynasties also intuitively presented the image of the “Marshal”. The first is “Marshal Zhao Zhao” in Song painting “Daozi Bao” (Figure 1). “Dao Zibao” is now hidden in the Cleveland Art Museum in the United States. This set of works is generally considered to be a “pink book” (pink book “of Taoist mural creation in the Song Dynasty painters. Judging from the specific image of “Du Governor Zhao Yuan” painted in “Daozi Mo Bao”, Zhao Gongming headed his head, armor robe, long beard, right hand holding iron whip, left -handed iron cable, and “Dao Fa Council Yuan Yuan “The description is basically the same.
Figure 1 1 “Marshal Zhao Zhao” in Song Painting “Dao Zibao”
Figure 1-2 “Daozi Mo Bao” list topic
Zhao Gongming’s image also retained the image of the search gods engraved by the folk publishing during the Song and Yuan Dynasties. A typical example is the image of “Marshal Zhao” in the “New Editorial Search God” in the middle and late Yuan Dynasty (Figure 2). It can be seen from this picture that Zhao Gongming headed his head, a armor robe, a long beard, a long whip, and a right hand holding an iron cable. And there are text descriptions:
Marshal surnames Zhao, taboo is bright, and Nanshan people also. From the Qin Dynasty to avoid the mountains, it was refined to the road. The merits are fulfilled, and Emperor Fengju is called to be the deputy commander of Shenxiao. Press: Marshal Nai Haoting Xiaolianzhuangzhuang’s fainting and fainting, which is located, is in dry, and Jinshui is also meteorized. Its color, wearing iron crowns, holding iron whip, Jin Yanshui and gas also. Those who have black and beards, north. Cross -tiger, Golden Elephant.
Figure 2 “Marshal Zhao” in “New Editorial Connection”
In general, as an important marshal god in the Song and Yuan dynasties, the gods of marshals in the Qingwei and Qingwei Laifa system, Zhao Gongming’s appearance and color image showed a relatively fixed model. , Wear the head of the feet, the golden towering robe, the right hand holding the iron whip, the left hand to hold the iron cable, and the black tiger follower. And these characteristics have rich connotations:
“Black Noodles”: Dark face (or purple black) should be related to the characteristics of the “plague” and “ghost” elements contained in the early image of Zhao Gongming. The symbolic trace of the characteristics of the characteristics. In addition, the appearance characteristics of black noodles (thick beard) have further strengthened Zhao Gongming’s powerful and powerful image as general.
“Wearing a feet” (Iron Head): The head of the head, also known as the head of the head, is a kind of official hat of the Song Dynasty. According to the official service system of the Song Dynasty, there are five types of straightened feet, bureau (foot), feet, facing the sky, and smooth wind. Among them, the feet are usually worn by the military officers of the Song Dynasty and will be worn by Zuo. Its shape is divided into the top of the top and the top of the top, and the soft wrapping is different. Big wrapped head, first use wood as “mountains”, place the towels in front of the forehead, and then wrap it with gauze to make it flat and fix. Then use the iron wire to be woven into the inner shape. Black lacquer, commonly known as “military capacity”. In the Song Dynasty, senior generals, middlemen, and even soldiers and even soldiers could wear feet. After the Yuan Dynasty, this “feet gimmick” was still very popular.
“Golden Metica Robe”: The costume of the inner armor robe is the standard configuration of the senior general of the Song Dynasty. This uniform configuration symbolizes the characteristics of Marshal Zhao Gongming as a higher level general.
“Holding a whipper”: The iron whip was not only an important actual weapon in ancient China, but also symbolizing the power of the senior general; the iron cable may be the trace of the symbolic element of the image of the early ghost (ghost) of Zhao Gongming.
“Black Tiger Following”: Black Tiger follows or cross -black tiger, which not only increases Zhao Gongming’s mighty image as the marshal god, but also has deep symbolic symbolic righteousness. “Dao Fa Meiyuan” Volume 232 “The Secret Law of Marshal Zhao Xuantan Zhao Xuantan” is: “Cross -Tiger, Golden Elephant.” Zhao Gongming once conquered the black tiger in the people, So the black tiger is used as a mount. In addition, the Chinese folk has the traditional concept of “riding black tigers” symbolizing a fortune. Therefore, the elements of “Black Tiger” also strengthened Zhao Gongming’s identity as a god of wealth.
While the above -mentioned color and appearance characteristics constitute the image of Zhao Gongming’s mighty marshal gods, it also contains its “master wealth”, that is, the function of being in charge of wealth. According to the relevant content of the “Dao Fa Meiyuan”, according to the ancient five elements gossip theory, Zhao Gongming “is located in dry”, that is, the northwestern orientation symbolized by Qian Gua, presented “the image of the Jinhe Water”; the head of the head; the head; Wearing iron crown and holding iron whip is a symbol of “Golden Water Water”; the black surface is “northern”, and the cross -tiger is “golden elephant”, which contains the meaning of “gold in water”.
The direct text of the attributes of Zhao Gongming’s “God of Wealth” during the Song and Yuan Dynasties was the 232 “Marshal Zhao Yuan” in Volume 232. Among them, Zhao Gongming, who is “Deputy Marshal of Shenxiao”, has the sacred functions of “Master Wealth”:
Buy fair, seek for money, should be harmonious. But there are things to be upright, and they can pray for the mythical people. If you pray for incorrect things, God will condemn. Dear.
The sacred functions of Marshal Zhao Gongming have an important part of “fair trading, seeking money, and being suitable for harmony”. Mr. Liu Zhongyu’s research pointed out: “Ancient gold was the formal representative of wealth, and the people represented the wealth by the people. Marshal Zhao Yiyuan was the symbol of Jin Shui meeting, and naturally it was the first representative of wealth.” The factor attributes such as color, appearance, etc. (Golden Elephant or Jinhe Water Elephant) are closely linked to the sacred divisions of “main wealth”, and they use the “justice and justice” moral concept as the core principles of their wealth. Essence
In the Ming Dynasty, as the Emperor Zhenwu (Xuan Tian God) faith was generally prosperous nationwide, Marshal Zhao Gongming was once absorbed into the god of the gods under the god of Xuan Tian. team. Correspondingly, many Taoist water and land paintings with the Emperor Zhenwu as the Lord during this period also appeared in the statue of Zhao Gongming. For example, there is now Marshal Zhao in the Ming Dynasty Taoist water and land painting “Emperor Tu Tu”, which is now hidden in Lingyun Temple in Tokyo, Japan (Figure 3). Zhao Gongming in “Emperor Tu” is round -minded, wearing a feet, yellow wipe, golden tiny robe, right -handed whip, left -handed iron cable, and a black tiger to follow, and still continues the “Marshal God” during the Song and Yuan Dynasties. feature. Some images about Zhao Gongming also retained in the Ming Dynasty folk search literature. For example, in the early Ming Dynasty, there was a print image of Marshal Zhao in the “Three Teachers Source Searching Gods” (Figure 4).
Figure 3 Marshal Zhao in the Ming Dynasty Taoist Water Painting “Emperor Tu Tu”
Figure 4 Marshal Zhao in the “Three Teachers Source Search God”
In the late Ming Dynasty, Zhao Gongming’s image as the God of Wealth was further prominent, and this was due to the profound influence of the long chapters published during the Ming Longqing and Wanli years in the folk society. In “Fengshen Romance”, Zhao Gongming was originally a Taoist priest in the Luoyanshan Luo Cave. The weapon used was a steel whip, and there were two magic weapons of Dinghaizhu and dragon binding. Essence When the gods were sealed, Jiang Ziya Zhao Gongming was “Jinlong Ruyi Zhengyi Dragon Tiger Xuantan Zhenjun”, referred to as “Xuantan Zhenjun”, the commander “Zhaobao Tianzun Xiao Sheng”, “Naizhen Tianzun Cao Bao”, “Zhao Zhao” The four gods of wealthy Chen Jiugong “and” Yao Shao, a fairy official in Li City “, are specially welcomed by Xiangxiang and businessmen. At this point, Zhao Gongming’s image of the God of Wealth and the Division of the “Master Wealth” have further highlighted and systematized through the clear division of labor of Zhaobao, Nazhen, Zhaocai, and Li City. However, judging from the current Ming Dynasty Zhao Gongming image materials, its function of wealth seems to have not yet passed the “explicit” method (such as gold and silver ingot, orb, and polytrahopra.
In the Qing Dynasty, with the further development of the commodity economy, the god of wealth was prosperous, and the concept of wealth praying for wealth of wealth was even more common and strong. Moreover, people’s worship of wealth and symbols also expressed more intuitively in various image materials and materials Essence In this context, the attributes of Zhao Gongming’s wealth can be displayed in a “explicit” manner, especially in the widespread popular wealth image (paper horse painting, etc.), which are widely popular in the Qing Dynasty, generally added ingots, cornucopia, orb and other wealth. The symbol of the treasure highlights the sacred function of the wealth of Marshal Zhao Gongyuan in a vivid and concrete way. For example, in the popular New Year painting “The Tap of the Gods” in the Qing Dynasty, Marshal Zhao Xuan not only retained the classic image of the “Marshal God” of the “Marshal God” of the “Marshal God” of the head of the head, the armor of the armor, the hand -held iron whip, and the obedience of the black tiger. The symbol of the treasure (Figure 5).
Figure 5 Marshal Zhao Marshal Zhao in the Qing Dynasty New Year Painting “The Tap of the Gods”
“Paper Horse” that appeared in the Southern Song Dynasty and prevailed in the Qing Dynasty, the version of the printed god statue used to offer and incinerate. The folk is commonly known as “God Horse”, “Horse”, and “Jiama”. Fortune. For example, in the paper and horse New Year painting “Marshal of Xuantan Zhao Yongyuan”, which was popular in the period of the Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China, Zhao Gongming not only retained the classic image of the “Marshal God” of the full -fledged costume, but also held the ingot in the left hand. At the same time, the servants around Zhao Gongming also held the ingots and treasures, which strengthened his wealth. It can be seen that the “Zhao Gongming” in folk image materials in the Qing Dynasty, while retaining the characteristics of the elements of the Marshal God since the Song and Yuan Dynasties, increased the specific elements symbolizing wealth such as ingots, cornucopia, and treasures, and intuitively “displayed” at the image science level. Zhao Gongming’s wealth attribute.
Figure 6 Zhao Gongming, the God of Wealth of the New Year of the Qing Dynasty
Figure 7 Paper Horse Zhao Gong Yuan Marshal
7-2 God God Zhao Gongming Paper Horse
What is intriguing is that in the Taoist water and land paintings that have been descended from the Qing Dynasty, the statue of Zhao Gongming did not indicate its wealth attributes with specific symbols such as “ingot”, “poly treasure”, and “Orb”, and most of them still continued its image of the Marshal. The reason is probably because the Taoist beliefs of religious forms should not be used too straightforwardly to show the pursuit of “vulgar wealth” in the practice of the practice of the science and ritual practice. From this point of view, the method of increasing the intuitive symbol of wealth is mainly used in the practice of images of the Qing Dynasty by reducing folk beliefs, and it is rarely used by Taoist science and science instruments.
Figure 8 Zhao Gongming in the Qing Dynasty Taoist Water Painting
Until the Republic of China, various wealth and god paper horses were still popular in folk society. Most of the Zhao Gongming on the images held wealth symbols such as “ingot” and “cornucopia”. Since then, this intuitive image performance method has also affected the images of Taoism and Palace Views to a certain extent. Today, the wealth god Zhao Yuanshu, we see in many Taoist palace views, has also won the “Big Yuanbao” and “Poly Treasure”.
Figure 9 Ming Dynasty Taoist Shui Lu painting Zhao Yuanshou statue
Figure 10 Marshal Zhao Tao painting black tiger in the Qing Dynasty
Editor in charge: Huang Xiaofeng
School pair: Zhang Yan