Introduction: Technical history related to optical fluid, analyze from the motivation, process and current results analysis of the following direction.
The two of the technical details of the optical fluid are learned from history
Abstract: (1) Trive review of history and related technological development process related to optical fluid technology.
(2) Technical history related to optical solution, analyze from the motivation, process and current results analysis of the following direction.
(3) Design a minimum optical fluid system based on analysis. And analyze the performance of the system
Keywords: solar; history; light liquid; power generation; optical solution.
Do not forget the teacher in the past, this idea is particularly important in technology development.
The technology of light liquid is attributed to the use of solar energy. The use of solar energy begins with the human society to drill wood for fire. For the first time, the solar energy is used subjectively. At present, all energy utilization of energy except for nuclear energy and geothermal energy except nuclear energy and geothermal energy use solar energy. Understand such a truth. It is possible to become the main form of solar energy as a debate.
1 Solar use form
1.1 The form and start time of solar use
1.1.1 fire, concentration, wind, wind
The use of fire is the solar stored in the fuel, and the primitive humans have benefited from the use of natural sky fire. Then he learned to get the initiative to get and retain the fire source. This era may be earlier than the Stone Age. Homo sapiens and human civilization can also use whether to take the initiative to obtain fire as the criterion. In a million years after the emergence of Homo sapiens or human civilization, the progress of Homo sapiens or human civilization has made a very slow progress. Until thousands of years ago, humans had written records. The best way to use solar energy is still fire.
More than 8,000 years ago, the Egyptian Nile River Basin appeared on the sailboat made of reed grass as the hull and the humble sails. This can be said to be the ancestor of modern sailing. The earliest sailing competition recorded that the ancient Roman poet Virgil in the 1st century BC described in detail in the narrative poem “Intt” the sailing competition of Troy to Italy, and described the winners of the winners and participants after the competition. Essence
The emergence of sailing is a revolutionary symbol in solar energy, making humans go further. Until Columbus discovered the new continent, wind energy was still the largest source of power for human travel.
At the latest in 700 BC, the ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamian began to grind and use lens. This is another qualitative leap in solar use.
1.1.2 Coal, hydropower
When human began to use coal to be traced, the use of coal on a large scale was that humans used a large amount of coal after the start of the industrial revolution. Coal power generation can be traced back to the scale power generation after the emergence of the steam engine. On August 29, 1831, Faraday turned mechanical power into electricity. Two months later, the first real generator that could produce a steady current. It marks that humans have entered the electrical era from the steam era. The coal and electricity also came out soon.
When humans begin to use hydraulic use, they cannot trace back. Eastern Han Dynasty (23 BC -56 AD) first recorded the application of human hydraulic application in “The New Theory of Grasson”: “The system of 宓 羲 杵 东 东 东 东 东 东, By using the body to practice, and the ten -fold pestle. It is also reconciled, and it is a hundred times the benefit of the donkey, the donkey, the cattle and the horse and the service water. “
The history of hydropower can be traced back to 1878, and the world’s first hydropower project lights up a lamp in the Nuosen Berlan rural hut in England.
Coal and hydropower are still the main form of human use of solar today. And this history is less than 300 years.
1.1.3 Petroleum and natural gas, light and hot photovoltaic
From the Zhou Dynasty more than 3,000 years ago, in the Book of Changes, there were “upper fire and down”, “there was a fire in Zezhong” and so on. This is the earliest record of human discovery and use of natural gas. The scale of oil and gas has developed rapidly in the late 19th and early twentieth century. It can even be said that the First and Second World War was caused by oil and gas. If only coal and hydraulic power is used. Humans have no way to invest in so many war resources.
In 50 AD, the Romans began to install glass on the windows. Through our so -called greenhouse effect today, the heat energy was left indoors more and more for a long time, both for heating and producing fruits and vegetables. This is a record of early human use of light heat.
In 1839, the French scientist E.BECQUEREL found the liquid vulgar effect of the liquid, which opened the era of quantum use of human solar energy.
With the increase in economic competitiveness of shale gas and China’s development of the solar photovoltaic industry. It is expected that after 2030, natural gas and photovoltaic power generation. It will be an effective way to use solar energy.
2 Decisive factor for solar use
The history of solar energy is long and slow, and almost the change or appearance of almost every usage method accompanied the changes in human civilization and human itself. From the perspective of historical dialectical thinking, the future of human beings also continues this law. So is natural gas and photovoltaic the ultimate form of human solar energy use?
The following discusses from the perspective of efficiency, energy density, use scenarios and economic value. (This article is a popular science article, non -professional academic papers, so all data will not be demonstrated)
2.1 efficiency and density
The efficiency of solar use refers to the effectively projected on the ground with solar energy. After conversion, eventually become energy that effectively serves human beings. For the use of fire, the conversion efficiency of solar energy to biomass is about 0-3%. The most effective is plants such as sugarcane. The production, collection and transportation of biomass will consume a lot of energy. The ultimate efficiency will be less than 3%. The type of fossil energy is attributed to the energy of biomass energy, but it only takes hundreds of millions of years to accumulate rich solar energy.
Solar light and heat use, light heat conversion thermal energy 0-80%. There are many forms of serving humans. If it is used for heating, efficiency will be very high. The efficiency used for power generation will be 0 to 29%. Turn into chemical energy, based on different solar energy, reorganization of methanol, methanol, reorganization of methanol, and so on. The maximum conversion efficiency is 75%.
The conversion efficiency of solar photovoltaic use is 0 to 45%.
The energy density projected to the earth is certain. The energy density on the earth is 1.33kW/m2.
The energy density of electricity is determined by the carrier of electricity, and the commercial electrical electricization-battery with the highest power storage is 0.4kWh/KG (non-chemical battery). Electricity is the best energy way to serve humans. Photovoltaic conversion efficiency is high and convenient for transmission, but the energy density of the energy carrier of electricity is not high. Even if the cost of photovoltaic power generation is reduced, energy storage will limit its application.
The biomass or other methods of photosynthesis or other methods converted into chemical energy energy density carbon, hydrogen, methane and methanol theoretical net heat value 9.17kWh/kg, 39.72kWh/kg, 15.56kWh/kg, 6.39kWh/kg. These energy are stored. The gesture is inconvenient to store and use, and the solid state is inconvenient to transport. Methanol will be the best way to use.
And what is the efficiency of light converted into charcoal, hydrogen, methane and methanol? Will it be more efficient than photovoltaic? If it is higher than photovoltaic. Then methanol is a condition to compete with photovoltaic.
2.2 Use scenarios
There are a lot of solar use scenarios, so I won’t go into details. Simply compare the application scenarios of two ways of electricity and methanol.
The application of electrical energy is almost everywhere, convenient and direct. The application of methanol is rare now. This does not mean that methanol is not competitive. For example, applied in cars. If the density of electricity storage is high, it reaches one tenth of methanol. Then methanol can win. Because methanol power is more than 30%. In other words, if the conversion efficiency of solar energy to electrical energy and methanol is the same. Then methanol can still win from competition.
The other is thermal use. If the electric energy is directly exchanged by electricity, the power is transmitted through the power line, and the methanol is transmitted through the pipeline. Under the same price of the two. People may choose methanol to cook, and methanol is used as some heating source in the factory. Instead of electricity.
In other words, methanol and electrical energy can form complementive. The premise is that the economic and solar conversion efficiency is equivalent to methanol and electrical energy.
2.3 Economic value and impact on people
The calculation of methanol and electrical energy in economic value is too complicated. It cannot be calculated. From a reasonable perspective, it is judged whether solar energy use is methanol or electrical energy. It can be considered like this, why can the current oil, natural gas, and coal be the main energy sources. This is a solar energy that has accumulated and enriched nature. If we compress this time to 1 year, the range of enrichment is 10,000 times. Improved conversion efficiency. Then get methanol. It is as good as the current fossil energy. Based on this judgment. I think methanol is likely to continue the advantages of fossil energy and continue to play the role of energy in the photovoltaic era.
For people, the four energy sources of methanol, photovoltaic, nuclear power, and geothermal geothermal will bring some problems. If the photovoltaic manufacturing process will have some pollution and energy storage problems, nuclear power will be fatal. However, there are some advantages in the optical solution technology produced by methanol. That is zero pollution to solve pollution. Other energy techniques such as convenient transportation, energy density, and difficulty in implementation of technology are all available.
3 micro -optical fluid system
Such a system is too complicated. It is a very difficult process to design complete and calculations. I am currently designing a lighting area of 400 square meters. Use biogas to produce 100kg of methanol system. (It will be announced after a few months)
Let’s take a look at the research results of a Japanese institution. The original optical solution technology has existed for decades. But it did not develop. Just as photovoltaic has been for hundreds of years, of course, the most basic principle of optical fluid technology is not invented and discovered by someone in Japan. Any high school graduate in science can invented such a method.
The picture below is from Doi: 10.1016/J.ENERGY.2004.08.021 “Development of Green-Fuel Production Technology by Combination of Fossil Fuel and Renewable Energy” author
This technology has no engineering application examples so far. It shows that economical is not feasible and inefficient.
Figure 1 The energy rotation efficiency of the light thermal system
Judging from this illustration, light thermal provides 7.6%energy, and electrolyte energy provides 43.4%. The energy converted to 38.5%of the hydrogen. After simple thinking and knowing that those who are engaged in these research do not know that the output is more efficient and valuable, which has caused the failure of this design.
Minerial methane, coal. The ability density is higher. Why are you still converting to methanol?
Solar light heat power generation, electricity energy more effective service to human beings. Why do you also remove electrhanol to produce methanol?
I saw this article today. It is feasible to have a small optical fluid system after such a comparison. Because the efficiency of solar use of the micro -optical fluid system is higher than that of this system. Of course, you still need to calculate and practice to obtain data.
So, optical solution technology is worth research and practice.
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